chargeback - Can a bitcoin transaction be reversed ...

Long live decentralized bitcoin(!) A reading list

Newbs might not know this, but bitcoin recently came out of an intense internal drama. Between July 2015 and August 2017 bitcoin was attacked by external forces who were hoping to destroy the very properties that made bitcoin valuable in the first place. This culminated in the creation of segwit and the UASF (user activated soft fork) movement. The UASF was successful, segwit was added to bitcoin and with that the anti-decentralization side left bitcoin altogether and created their own altcoin called bcash. Bitcoin's price was $2500, soon after segwit was activated the price doubled to $5000 and continued rising until a top of $20000 before correcting to where we are today.
During this drama, I took time away from writing open source code to help educate and argue on reddit, twitter and other social media. I came up with a reading list for quickly copypasting things. It may be interesting today for newbs or anyone who wants a history lesson on what exactly happened during those two years when bitcoin's very existence as a decentralized low-trust currency was questioned. Now the fight has essentially been won, I try not to comment on reddit that much anymore. There's nothing left to do except wait for Lightning and similar tech to become mature (or better yet, help code it and test it)
In this thread you can learn about block sizes, latency, decentralization, segwit, ASICBOOST, lightning network and all the other issues that were debated endlessly for over two years. So when someone tries to get you to invest in bcash, remind them of the time they supported Bitcoin Unlimited.
For more threads like this see UASF

Summary / The fundamental tradeoff

A trip to the moon requires a rocket with multiple stages by gmaxwell (must read) https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/438hx0/a_trip_to_the_moon_requires_a_rocket_with/
Bram Cohen, creator of bittorrent, argues against a hard fork to a larger block size https://medium.com/@bramcohen/bitcoin-s-ironic-crisis-32226a85e39f#.558vetum4
gmaxwell's summary of the debate https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=1343716.msg13701818#msg13701818
Core devs please explain your vision (see luke's post which also argues that blocks are already too big) https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/61yvvv/request_to_core_devs_please_explain_your_vision/
Mod of btc speaking against a hard fork https://www.reddit.com/btc/comments/57hd14/core_reaction_to_viabtc_this_week/d8scokm/
It's becoming clear to me that a lot of people don't understand how fragile bitcoin is https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/59kflj/its_becoming_clear_to_me_that_a_lot_of_people/
Blockchain space must be costly, it can never be free https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/4og24h/i_just_attended_the_distributed_trade_conference/
Charlie Lee with a nice analogy about the fundamental tradeoff https://medium.com/@SatoshiLite/eating-the-bitcoin-cake-fc2b4ebfb85e#.444vr8shw
gmaxwell on the tradeoffs https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=1520693.msg15303746#msg15303746
jratcliff on the layering https://www.reddit.com/btc/comments/59upyh/segwit_the_poison_pill_for_bitcoin/d9bstuw/

Scaling on-chain will destroy bitcoin's decentralization

Peter Todd: How a floating blocksize limit inevitably leads towards centralization [Feb 2013] https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=144895.0 mailing list https://lists.linuxfoundation.org/pipermail/bitcoin-dev/2013-February/002176.html with discussion on reddit in Aug 2015 https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/3hnvi8/just_a_little_history_lesson_for_everyone_new_the/
Nick Szabo's blog post on what makes bitcoin so special http://unenumerated.blogspot.com/2017/02/money-blockchains-and-social-scalability.html
There is academic research showing that even small (2MB) increases to the blocksize results in drastic node dropoff counts due to the non-linear increase of RAM needed. http://bravenewcoin.com/assets/Whitepapers/block-size-1.1.1.pdf
Reddit summary of above link. In this table, you can see it estimates a 40% drop immediately in node count with a 2MB upgrade and a 50% over 6 months. At 4mb, it becomes 75% immediately and 80% over 6 months. At 8, it becomes 90% and 95%. https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/5qw2wa_future_led_by_bitcoin_unlimited_is_a/dd442pw/
Larger block sizes make centralization pressures worse (mathematical) https://petertodd.org/2016/block-publication-incentives-for-miners
Talk at scalingbitcoin montreal, initial blockchain synchronization puts serious constraints on any increase in the block size https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TgjrS-BPWDQ&t=2h02m06s with transcript https://scalingbitcoin.org/transcript/montreal2015/block-synchronization-time
Bitcoin's P2P Network: The Soft Underbelly of Bitcoin https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Y6kibPzbrIc someone's notes: https://gist.github.com/romyilano/5e22394857a39889a1e5 reddit discussion https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/4py5df/so_f2pool_antpool_btcc_pool_are_actually_one_pool/
In adversarial environments blockchains dont scale https://scalingbitcoin.org/transcript/hongkong2015/in-adversarial-environments-blockchains-dont-scale
Why miners will not voluntarily individually produce smaller blocks https://scalingbitcoin.org/transcript/hongkong2015/why-miners-will-not-voluntarily-individually-produce-smaller-blocks
Hal Finney: bitcoin's blockchain can only be a settlement layer (mostly interesting because it's hal finney and its in 2010) https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/3sb5nj/most_bitcoin_transactions_will_occur_between/
petertodd's 2013 video explaining this https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cZp7UGgBR0I
luke-jr's summary https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/61yvvv/request_to_core_devs_please_explain_your_vision/dficjhj/
Another jratcliff thread https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/6lmpll/explaining_why_big_blocks_are_bad/

Full blocks are not a disaster

Blocks must be always full, there must always be a backlog https://medium.com/@bergealex4/bitcoin-is-unstable-without-the-block-size-size-limit-70db07070a54#.kh2vi86lr
Same as above, the mining gap means there must always be a backlog talk: https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=2453&v=iKDC2DpzNbw transcript: https://scalingbitcoin.org/transcript/montreal2015/security-of-diminishing-block-subsidy
Backlogs arent that bad https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/49p011/was_the_fee_event_really_so_bad_my_mind_is/
Examples where scarce block space causes people to use precious resources more efficiently https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/4kxxvj/i_just_singlehandedly_increased_bitcoin_network/
https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/47d4m2/why_does_coinbase_make_2_transactions_pe
https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/53wucs/why_arent_blocks_full_yet/d7x19iv
Full blocks are fine https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/5uld1a/misconception_full_blocks_mean_bitcoin_is_failing/
High miner fees imply a sustainable future for bitcoin https://www.reddit.com/BitcoinMarkets/comments/680tvf/fundamentals_friday_week_of_friday_april_28_2017/dgwmhl7/
gmaxwell on why full blocks are good https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/6b57ca/full_blocks_good_or_bad/dhjxwbz/
The whole idea of the mempool being "filled" is wrong headed. The mempool doesn't "clog" or get stuck, or anything like that. https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/7cusnx/to_the_people_still_doubting_that_this_congestion/dpssokf/

Segwit

What is segwit

luke-jr's longer summary https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/6033h7/today_is_exactly_4_months_since_the_segwit_voting/df3tgwg/?context=1
Charlie Shrem's on upgrading to segwit https://twitter.com/CharlieShrem/status/842711238853513220
Original segwit talk at scalingbitcoin hong kong + transcript https://youtu.be/zchzn7aPQjI?t=110
https://scalingbitcoin.org/transcript/hongkong2015/segregated-witness-and-its-impact-on-scalability
Segwit is not too complex https://www.reddit.com/btc/comments/57vjin/segwit_is_not_great/d8vos33/
Segwit does not make it possible for miners to steal coins, contrary to what some people say https://www.reddit.com/btc/comments/5e6bt0/concerns_with_segwit_and_anyone_can_spend/daa5jat/?context=1
https://keepingstock.net/segwit-eli5-misinformation-faq-19908ceacf23#.r8hlzaquz
Segwit is required for a useful lightning network It's now known that without a malleability fix useful indefinite channels are not really possible.
https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/5tzqtc/gentle_reminder_the_ln_doesnt_require_segwit/ddqgda7/
https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/5tzqtc/gentle_reminder_the_ln_doesnt_require_segwit/ddqbukj/
https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/5x2oh0/olaoluwa_osuntokun_all_active_lightning_network/deeto14/?context=3
Clearing up SegWit Lies and Myths: https://achow101.com/2016/04/Segwit-FUD-Clearup
Segwit is bigger blocks https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/5pb8vs/misinformation_is_working_54_incorrectly_believe/dcpz3en/
Typical usage results in segwit allowing capacity equivalent to 2mb blocks https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/69i2md/observe_for_yourself_segwit_allows_2_mb_blocks_in/

Why is segwit being blocked

Jihan Wu (head of largest bitcoin mining group) is blocking segwit because of perceived loss of income https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/60mb9e/complete_high_quality_translation_of_jihans/
Witness discount creates aligned incentives https://segwit.org/why-a-discount-factor-of-4-why-not-2-or-8-bbcebe91721e#.h36odthq0 https://medium.com/@SegWit.co/what-is-behind-the-segwit-discount-988f29dc1edf#.sr91dg406
or because he wants his mining enterprise to have control over bitcoin https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/6jdyk8/direct_report_of_jihan_wus_real_reason_fo

Segwit is being blocked because it breaks ASICBOOST, a patented optimization used by bitmain ASIC manufacturer

Details and discovery by gmaxwell https://lists.linuxfoundation.org/pipermail/bitcoin-dev/2017-April/013996.html
Reddit thread with discussion https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/63otrp/gregory_maxwell_major_asic_manufacturer_is/
Simplified explaination by jonny1000 https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/64qq5g/attempted_explanation_of_the_alleged_asicboost/
http://www.mit.edu/~jlrubin/public/pdfs/Asicboost.pdf
https://medium.com/@jimmysong/examining-bitmains-claims-about-asicboost-1d61118c678d
Evidence https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/63yo27/some_circumstantial_evidence_supporting_the_claim/
https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/63vn5g/please_dont_stop_us_from_using_asicboost_which/dfxmm75/
https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/63soe3/reverse_engineering_an_asic_is_a_significant_task/dfx9nc
Bitmain admits their chips have asicboost but they say they never used it on the network (haha a likely story) https://blog.bitmain.com/en/regarding-recent-allegations-smear-campaigns/
Worth $100m per year to them (also in gmaxwell's original email) https://twitter.com/petertoddbtc/status/849798529929424898
Other calculations show less https://medium.com/@vcorem/the-real-savings-from-asicboost-to-bitmaintech-ff265c2d305b
This also blocks all these other cool updates, not just segwit https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/63otrp/gregory_maxwell_major_asic_manufacturer_is/dfw0ej3/
Summary of bad consequences of asicboost https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/64qq5g/attempted_explanation_of_the_alleged_asicboost/dg4hyqk/?context=1
Luke's summary of the entire situation https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/6ego3s/why_is_killing_asicboost_not_a_priority/diagkkb/?context=1
Prices goes up because now segwit looks more likely https://twitter.com/TuurDemeestestatus/849846845425799168
Asicboost discovery made the price rise https://twitter.com/TuurDemeestestatus/851520094677200901
A pool was caught red handed doing asicboost, by this time it seemed fairly certain that segwit would get activated so it didnt produce as much interest as earlier https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/6p7lr5/1hash_pool_has_mined_2_invalid_blocks/ and https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/6p95dl/interesting_1hash_pool_mined_some_invalid_blocks/ and https://twitter.com/petertoddbtc/status/889475196322811904
This btc user is outraged at the entire forum because they support Bitmain and ASICBOOST https://www.reddit.com/btc/comments/67t43y/dragons_den_planned_smear_campaign_of_bitmain/dgtg9l2/
Antbleed, turns out Bitmain can shut down all its ASICs by remote control: http://www.antbleed.com/

What if segwit never activates

What if segwit never activates? https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/6ab8js/transaction_fees_are_now_making_btc_like_the_banks/dhdq3id/ with https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/5ksu3o/blinded_bearer_certificates/ and https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/4xy0fm/scaling_quickly/

Lightning

bitcoinmagazine's series on what lightning is and how it works https://bitcoinmagazine.com/articles/understanding-the-lightning-network-part-building-a-bidirectional-payment-channel-1464710791/ https://bitcoinmagazine.com/articles/understanding-the-lightning-network-part-creating-the-network-1465326903/ https://bitcoinmagazine.com/articles/understanding-the-lightning-network-part-completing-the-puzzle-and-closing-the-channel-1466178980/
The Lightning Network ELIDHDICACS (Explain Like I Don’t Have Degrees in Cryptography and Computer Science) https://letstalkbitcoin.com/blog/post/the-lightning-network-elidhdicacs
Ligtning will increases fees for miners, not lower them https://medium.com/lightning-resources/the-lightning-paradox-f15ce0e8e374#.erfgunumh
Cost-benefit analysis of lightning from the point of view of miners https://medium.com/@rusty_lightning/miners-and-bitcoin-lightning-a133cd550310#.x42rovlg8
Routing blog post by rusty https://medium.com/@rusty_lightning/routing-dijkstra-bellman-ford-and-bfg-7715840f004 and reddit comments https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/4lzkz1/rusty_russell_on_lightning_routing_routing/
Lightning protocol rfc https://github.com/lightningnetwork/lightning-rfc
Blog post with screenshots of ln being used on testnet https://medium.com/@btc_coach/lightning-network-in-action-b18a035c955d video https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mxGiMu4V7ns
Video of sending and receiving ln on testnet https://twitter.com/alexbosworth/status/844030573131706368
Lightning tradeoffs http://www.coindesk.com/lightning-technical-challenges-bitcoin-scalability/
Beer sold for testnet lightning https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/62uw23/lightning_network_is_working_room77_is_accepting/ and https://twitter.com/MrHodl/status/848265171269283845
Lightning will result in far fewer coins being stored on third parties because it supports instant transactions https://medium.com/@thecryptoconomy/the-barely-discussed-incredible-benefit-of-the-lightning-network-4ce82c75eb58
jgarzik argues strongly against LN, he owns a coin tracking startup https://twitter.com/petertoddbtc/status/860826532650123264 https://twitter.com/Beautyon_/status/886128801926795264
luke's great debunking / answer of some misinformation questions https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/6st4eq/questions_about_lightning_network/dlfap0u/
Lightning centralization doesnt happen https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/6vzau5/reminder_bitcoins_key_strength_is_in_being/dm4ou3v/?context=1
roasbeef on hubs and charging fees https://twitter.com/roasbeef/status/930209165728825344 and https://twitter.com/roasbeef/status/930210145790976000

Immutability / Being a swiss bank in your pocket / Why doing a hard fork (especially without consensus) is damaging

A downside of hard forks is damaging bitcoin's immutability https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/5em6vu/what_happens_if_segwit_doesnt_activate/dae1r6c/?context=3
Interesting analysis of miners incentives and how failure is possible, don't trust the miners for long term https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/5gtew4/why_an_increased_block_size_increases_the_cost_of/daybazj/?context=2
waxwing on the meaning of cash and settlement https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/5ei7m3/unconfirmed_transactions_60k_total_fees_14btc/dad001v/
maaku on the cash question https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/5i5iq5/we_are_spoiled/db5luiv/?context=1
Digital gold funamentalists gain nothing from supporting a hard fork to larger block sizes https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/5xzunq/core_please_compromise_before_we_end_up_with_bu/dem73xg/?context=1
Those asking for a compromise don't understand the underlying political forces https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/6ef7wb/some_comments_on_the_bip148_uasf_from_the/dia236b/?context=3
Nobody wants a contentious hard fork actually, anti-core people got emotionally manipulated https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/5sq5ocontentious_forks_vs_incremental_progress/ddip57o/
The hard work of the core developers has kept bitcoin scalable https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/3hfgpo/an_initiative_to_bring_advanced_privacy_features/cu7mhw8?context=9
Recent PRs to improve bitcoin scaleability ignored by the debate https://twitter.com/jfnewbery/status/883001356168167425
gmaxwell against hard forks since 2013 https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=140233.20
maaku: hard forks are really bad https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/5zxjza/adam_greg_core_devs_and_big_blockers_now_is_the/df275yk/?context=2

Some metrics on what the market thinks of decentralization and hostile hard forks

The price history shows that the exchange rate drops every time a hard fork threatens: https://i.imgur.com/EVPYLR8.jpg
and this example from 2017 https://twitter.com/WhalePanda/status/845562763820912642
http://imgur.com/a/DuHAn btc users lose money
price supporting theymos' moderation https://i.imgur.com/0jZdF9h.png
old version https://i.imgur.com/BFTxTJl.png
older version https://pbs.twimg.com/media/CxqtUakUQAEmC0d.jpg
about 50% of nodes updated to the soft fork node quite quickly https://imgur.com/O0xboVI

Bitcoin Unlimited / Emergent Consensus is badly designed, changes the game theory of bitcoin

Bitcoin Unlimited was a proposed hard fork client, it was made with the intention to stop segwit from activating
A Future Led by Bitcoin Unlimited is a Centralized Future https://blog.sia.tech/a-future-led-by-bitcoin-unlimited-is-a-centralized-future-e48ab52c817a#.p1ly6hldk
Flexible transactions are bugged https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/57tf5g/bitcoindev_bluematt_on_flexible_transactions/
Bugged BU software mines an invalid block, wasting 13 bitcoins or $12k
https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/5qwtr2/bitcoincom_loses_132btc_trying_to_fork_the/
https://www.reddit.com/btc/comments/5qx18i/bitcoincom_loses_132btc_trying_to_fork_the/
bitcoin.com employees are moderators of btc https://medium.com/@WhalePanda/the-curious-relation-between-bitcoin-com-anti-segwit-propaganda-26c877249976#.vl02566k4
miners don't control stuff like the block size http://hackingdistributed.com/2016/01/03/time-for-bitcoin-user-voice/
even gavin agreed that economic majority controls things https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/5ywoi9/in_2010_gavin_predicted_that_exchanges_ie_the/
fork clients are trying to steal bitcoin's brand and network effect, theyre no different from altcoins https://medium.com/@Coinosphere/why-bitcoin-unlimited-should-be-correctly-classified-as-an-attempted-robbery-of-bitcoin-not-a-9355d075763c#.qeaynlx5m
BU being active makes it easier to reverse payments, increases wasted work making the network less secure and giving an advantage to bigger miners https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/5g1x84/bitcoin_unlimited_bu_median_value_of_miner_eb/
bitcoin unlimited takes power away from users and gives it to miners https://medium.com/@alpalpalp/bitcoin-unlimiteds-placebo-controls-6320cbc137d4#.q0dv15gd5
bitcoin unlimited's accepted depth https://twitter.com/tdryja/status/804770009272696832
BU's lying propaganda poster https://imgur.com/osrViDE

BU is bugged, poorly-reviewed and crashes

bitcoin unlimited allegedly funded by kraken stolen coins
https://www.reddit.com/btc/comments/55ajuh/taint_analysis_on_bitcoin_stolen_from_kraken_on/
https://www.reddit.com/btc/comments/559miz/taint_analysis_on_btc_allegedly_stolen_from_kraken/
Other funding stuff
https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/5zozmn/damning_evidence_on_how_bitcoin_unlimited_pays/
A serious bug in BU https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/5h70s3/bitcoin_unlimited_bu_the_developers_have_realized/
A summary of what's wrong with BU: https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/5z3wg2/jihanwu_we_will_switch_the_entire_pool_to/devak98/

Bitcoin Unlimited Remote Exploit Crash 14/3/2017

https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/5zdkv3/bitcoin_unlimited_remote_exploit_crash/ https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/5zeb76/timbe https://www.reddit.com/btc/comments/5zdrru/peter_todd_bu_remote_crash_dos_wtf_bug_assert0_in/
BU devs calling it as disaster https://twitter.com/SooMartindale/status/841758265188966401 also btc deleted a thread about the exploit https://i.imgur.com/lVvFRqN.png
Summary of incident https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/5zf97j/i_was_undecided_now_im_not/
More than 20 exchanges will list BTU as an altcoin
https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/5zyg6g/bitcoin_exchanges_unveil_emergency_hard_fork/
Again a few days later https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/60qmkt/bu_is_taking_another_shit_timberrrrr

User Activated Soft Fork (UASF)

site for it, including list of businesses supporting it http://www.uasf.co/
luke's view
https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/5zsk45/i_am_shaolinfry_author_of_the_recent_usedf1dqen/?context=3
threat of UASF makes the miner fall into line in litecoin
https://www.reddit.com/litecoin/comments/66omhlitecoin_global_roundtable_resolution/dgk2thk/?context=3
UASF delivers the goods for vertcoin
https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/692mi3/in_test_case_uasf_results_in_miner_consensus/dh3cm34/?context=1
UASF coin is more valuable https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/6cgv44/a_uasf_chain_will_be_profoundly_more_valuable/
All the links together in one place https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/6dzpew/hi_its_mkwia_again_maintainer_of_uasfbitcoin_on/
p2sh was a uasf https://github.com/bitcoin/bitcoin/blob/v0.6.0/src/main.cpp#L1281-L1283
jgarzik annoyed at the strict timeline that segwit2x has to follow because of bip148 https://twitter.com/jgarzik/status/886605836902162432
Committed intolerant minority https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/6d7dyt/a_plea_for_rational_intolerance_extremism_and/
alp on the game theory of the intolerant minority https://medium.com/@alpalpalp/user-activated-soft-forks-and-the-intolerant-minority-a54e57869f57
The risk of UASF is less than the cost of doing nothing https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/6bof7a/were_getting_to_the_point_where_a_the_cost_of_not/
uasf delivered the goods for bitcoin, it forced antpool and others to signal (May 2016) https://bitcoinmagazine.com/articles/antpool-will-not-run-segwit-without-block-size-increase-hard-fork-1464028753/ "When asked specifically whether Antpool would run SegWit code without a hard fork increase in the block size also included in a release of Bitcoin Core, Wu responded: “No. It is acceptable that the hard fork code is not activated, but it needs to be included in a ‘release’ of Bitcoin Core. I have made it clear about the definition of ‘release,’ which is not ‘public.’”"
Screenshot of peter rizun capitulating https://twitter.com/chris_belcher_/status/905231603991007232

Fighting off 2x HF

https://twitter.com/MrHodl/status/895089909723049984
https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/6h612o/can_someone_explain_to_me_why_core_wont_endorse/?st=j6ic5n17&sh=cc37ee23
https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/6smezz/segwit2x_hard_fork_is_completely_useless_its_a/?st=j6ic2aw3&sh=371418dd
https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/6sbspv/who_exactly_is_segwit2x_catering_for_now_segwit/?st=j6ic5nic&sh=1f86cadd
https://medium.com/@elliotolds/lesser-known-reasons-to-keep-blocks-small-in-the-words-of-bitcoin-core-developers-44861968185e
b2x is most of all about firing core https://twitter.com/WhalePanda/status/912664487135760384
https://medium.com/@StopAndDecrypt/thats-not-bitcoin-this-is-bitcoin-95f05a6fd6c2

Misinformation / sockpuppets

https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/6uqz6k/markets_update_bitcoin_cash_rallies_for_three/dlurbpx/
three year old account, only started posting today https://archive.is/3STjH
Why we should not hard fork after the UASF worked: https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/6sl1qf/heres_why_we_should_not_hard_fork_in_a_few_months/

History

Good article that covers virtually all the important history https://bitcoinmagazine.com/articles/long-road-segwit-how-bitcoins-biggest-protocol-upgrade-became-reality/
Interesting post with some history pre-2015 https://btcmanager.com/the-long-history-of-the-fight-over-scaling-bitcoin/
The core scalabality roadmap + my summary from 3/2017 https://lists.linuxfoundation.org/pipermail/bitcoin-dev/2015-Decembe011865.html my summary https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/5xa5fa/the_core_development_scalability_roadmap/
History from summer 2015 https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/5xg7f8/the_origins_of_the_blocksize_debate/
Brief reminders of the ETC situation https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/6nvlgo/simple_breakdown_of_bip91_its_simply_the_miners/dkcycrz/
Longer writeup of ethereum's TheDAO bailout fraud https://www.reddit.com/ethereumfraud/comments/6bgvqv/faq_what_exactly_is_the_fraud_in_ethereum/
Point that the bigblocker side is only blocking segwit as a hostage https://www.reddit.com/BitcoinMarkets/comments/5sqhcq/daily_discussion_wednesday_february_08_2017/ddi3ctv/?context=3
jonny1000's recall of the history of bitcoin https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/6s34gg/rbtc_spreading_misinformation_in_rbitcoinmarkets/dl9wkfx/

Misc (mostly memes)

libbitcoin's Understanding Bitcoin series (another must read, most of it) https://github.com/libbitcoin/libbitcoin/wiki/Understanding-Bitcoin
github commit where satoshi added the block size limit https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/63859l/github_commit_where_satoshi_added_the_block_size/
hard fork proposals from some core devs https://bitcoinhardforkresearch.github.io/
blockstream hasnt taken over the entire bitcoin core project https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/622bjp/bitcoin_core_blockstream/
blockstream is one of the good guys https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/6cttkh/its_happening_blockstream_opens_liquid_sidechain/dhxu4e
Forkers, we're not raising a single byte! Song lyrics by belcher https://gist.github.com/chris-belche7264cd6750a86f8b4a9a
Some stuff here along with that cool photoshopped poster https://medium.com/@jimmysong/bitcoin-realism-or-how-i-learned-to-stop-worrying-and-love-1mb-blocks-c191c35e74cb
Nice graphic https://twitter.com/RNR_0/status/871070843698380800
gmaxwell saying how he is probably responsible for the most privacy tech in bitcoin, while mike hearn screwed up privacy https://www.reddit.com/btc/comments/6azyme/hey_bu_wheres_your_testnet/dhiq3xo/?context=6
Fairly cool propaganda poster https://twitter.com/urbanarson/status/880476631583924225
btc tankman https://i.redd.it/gxjqenzpr27z.png https://twitter.com/DanDarkPill/status/853653168151986177
asicboost discovery meme https://twitter.com/allenscottoshi/status/849888189124947971
https://twitter.com/urbanarson/status/882020516521013250
gavin wanted to kill the bitcoin chain https://twitter.com/allenscottoshi/status/849888189124947971
stuff that btc believes https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/6ld4a5/serious_is_the_rbtc_and_the_bu_crowd_a_joke_how/djszsqu/
after segwit2x NYA got agreed all the fee pressure disappeared, laurenmt found they were artificial spam https://twitter.com/i/moments/885827802775396352
theymos saying why victory isnt inevitable https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/6lmpll/explaining_why_big_blocks_are_bad/djvxv2o/
with ignorant enemies like these its no wonder we won https://bitco.in/forum/threads/gold-collapsing-bitcoin-up.16/page-999 ""So, once segwit2x activates, from that moment on it will require a coordinated fork to avoid the up coming "baked in" HF. ""
a positive effect of bcash, it made blockchain utxo spammers move away from bitcoin https://www.reddit.com/btc/comments/76lv0b/cryptograffitiinfo_now_accepts_bitcoin_cash/dof38gw/
summary of craig wright, jihan wu and roger ver's positions https://medium.com/@HjalmarPeters/the-big-blockers-bead6027deb2
Why is bitcoin so strong against attack?!?! (because we're motivated and awesome) https://www.reddit.com/btc/comments/64wo1h/bitcoin_unlimited_is_being_blocked_by_antivirus/dg5n00x/
what happened to #oldjeffgarzik https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/6ufv5x/a_reminder_of_some_of_jeff_garziks_greatest/
big blockers fully deserve to lose every last bitcoin they ever had and more https://www.reddit.com/BitcoinMarkets/comments/756nxf/daily_discussion_monday_october_09_2017/do5ihqi/
gavinandresen brainstorming how to kill bitcoin with a 51% in a nasty way https://twitter.com/btcdrak/status/843914877542567937
Roger Ver as bitcoin Judas https://imgur.com/a/Rf1Pi
A bunch of tweets and memes celebrating UASF
https://twitter.com/shaolinfry/status/842457019286188032 | https://twitter.com/SatoshiLite/status/888335092560441345 | https://twitter.com/btcArtGallery/status/887485162925285377 | https://twitter.com/Beautyon_/status/888109901611802624 | https://twitter.com/Excellion/status/889211512966873088 | https://twitter.com/lopp/status/888200452197801984 | https://twitter.com/AlpacaSW/status/886988980524396544 | https://twitter.com/BashCo_/status/877253729531162624 | https://twitter.com/tdryja/status/865212300361379840 | https://twitter.com/Excellion/status/871179040157179904 | https://twitter.com/TraceMayestatus/849856343074902016 | https://twitter.com/TraceMayestatus/841855022640033792 | https://fs.bitcoinmagazine.com/img/images/Screen_Shot_2017-08-18_at_01.36.47.original.png
submitted by belcher_ to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

16 Reasons to Buy DGB

This was posted by someone on Trading View.
https://www.tradingview.com/chart/DGBUSD/b7CtJtUS-16-Reasons-to-Buy-DGB-Today-and-Hold-as-a-Long-Term-Investment/
We live in a unique time like none other. Digital assets are disrupting the financial sector. The invention of blockchain is just as important as the invention of the internet. There are hundreds of digital assets to choose from in today's market. Some are great investments but most will fail. Let's make the case for Digibyte as a solid investment. This list is not in order of importance and isn't exhaustive. Please forgive the redundancy since I've mentioned some of these arguments in previous posts. Consider the following arguments.
  1. We are at a relative bottom on USD and BTC -0.17% charts. Under no circumstances should we purchase an alt coin at its peak. Always buy at the bottom!
  2. Clear signs of a reversal are evident on the USD chart. Our current USD value has more than doubled in the last 30 days.
  3. We will be at $10 by May of 2019 if and only if we respect the right leg of the triangle. The graph featured is a weekly log chart of Digibyte in USD. The first wave took us to the all time high. The second wave completed its retracement when it touched the right leg of the triangle. The third wave should take us to the left leg of the triangle where it will touch for the 4th time. The 4th touch will take us to at least $0.16.
  4. Great divergence exists between the USD and BTC -0.17% charts on https://coinmarketcap.com/currencies/digibyte/. This can be clearly seen when you select log scale. Expect massive gains in value when such divergence exists! Consider what happened to the price from Jan - Feb and Sep - Oct of 2015.
  5. We have recently been listed on Yahoo -0.26% Finance (https://finance.yahoo.com/quote/DGB-USD?p=DGB-USD). Notice that Digibyte is paired with 10 different currencies. I personally think that this is huge since it will attract the attention of mainstream investors.
  6. We have recently been added to Ledger Nano S and Blue. This allows users to store their Digibytes on a hardware wallet. This is a significant and meaningful accomplishment which sets us apart from other digital assets (https://ledger.zendesk.com/hc/en-us/articles/115003917093-How-to-install-and-use-Digibyte-with-Ledger).
  7. We didn't spring up overnight. We have been around for over 4 years. Our technology has been tried, tested, and proven.
  8. We forked from the BTC -0.17% protocol. So the base code isn't original to us. However, we have not sat idly by over the last 4 years. Rather, our developers have proactively enhanced the original code by solving some of the most important problems that plague Bitcoin -0.17% and other digital assets.
  9. We anticipated the astronomical cost for a Bitcoin -0.17% micro transaction. Our fee for a single transaction is slightly more than one cent!
  10. We are the fastest digital asset on the market! If you don't believe that then put us to the test and try for yourself. We'll be able to process 280,000 transactions per second by 2035 since our block size doubles every two years. Therefore, you won't be plagued by unconfirmed transactions like with Bitcoin -0.17% . You will have your Digibytes in a few minutes and they will be spendable.
  11. We are the longest blockchain in existence at over 5 million blocks with 15 second block times.
  12. We are the most decentralized mineable blockchain in the market since we are on over a 100,000 nodes. Therefore, we are more distributed than Bitcoin -0.17% or other digital assets.
  13. We pioneered Digishield which is used to protect more than 25 alt coins from a malicious attack.
  14. We were the second digital asset to activate Segwit which will allow for atomic swaps. And, we did so without a contentious hard fork with full support of our 65,000 community members.
  15. Our community is growing rapidly. We have over 65k followers on Twitter.
  16. We use 5 mining algorithms to prevent centralization and protect against a 51% attack. Currently, the community is discussing a hard fork which will swap out an algorithm for another to prevent ASIC -90.00% mining centralization.
submitted by ycagel to Digibyte [link] [comments]

[ANN] Presenting VertVerser!

Vertans!
Stealth Addresses were only the beginning... I am happy to introduce VertVerser (Vert = Green, Verser = To Pay)! The name could also be taken as "Vertcoin Reverser". Either way, it is awesome.
VertVerser is a way to pay with Vertcoin anywhere Bitcoin is accepted. And, the reverse is true as well. You can send Vertcoin to any address (including your own) using Bitcoin.
VertVerser is in Alpha status and should only be used for small amounts initially. Here are some important pieces of information:
  1. From the time you send the funds to the time the receiving address receives them (unconfirmed) should take less than 12 minutes.
  2. If you send more than the required amount for the transaction, the additional funds are considered a tip for the system.
  3. The request expires in 5 minutes if the funds are not received by the sender
  4. VertVerser uses two "buffer" wallets to speed up the transaction process. If either wallet does not contain the funds required to facilitate the transaction, you will be presented with an error accordingly. This will happen before you send the money so your transaction won't be in limbo.
  5. A 2VTC fee applies to all transactions at the moment. This is to fill the buffer wallets and support server costs.
VertVerser was built on a flexible API which means it can easily be integrated into our wallets (mobile included). You would simply enter (or scan) a BTC address and then rest happens automatically.
Finally, I will reiterate that this is Alpha. I have sent funds around both ways successfully, but you never know the fringe cases a production run will encounter. Luckily funds are easily traced and we can take remedial action accordingly.
The buffer wallets are pretty empty at the moment - They need both VTC and BTC. If you are willing to donate some funds to grease the wheels, the addresses are VstVHvewjQb3Foj5hbFZAfQBRcDuu4DZfS and 1B1e3mbFEBsFTR3biURXNzMSBLFENRaSKu respectively.
Please PM me if you are willing to help test this so I can monitor the transactions and see how things go.
https://vertverser.com
Cheers!
a432511
Quick Edit: SSL is coming shortly. Just getting the cert sorted. SSL is in place.
EDIT: I am going to bring some of my own coins out of cold storage and fill the VTC buffer. I will probably sell a few to get the BTC side warmed up too. Any help would be much appreciated - mainly for the BTC wallet as I have none right now
EDIT: Ok.. decent amount (300) in VTC buffer wallet. Working on some BTC
EDIT: And got some in the BTC buffer as well out of pocket :-D Let's run some tests...
EDIT: So far so good... :-D
EDIT: Limits increased. Check website for new values - they will update over time
submitted by a432511 to vertcoin [link] [comments]

Smilo explained — 51% attacks

Smilo explained — 51% attacks
In this article of Smilo Explained we are going to explain more about the infamous 51% attacks of the blockchain space. We decided to create a separate article on this matter since it is one of the most impactful attacks in the blockchain space and very topical over the last few weeks with several attacks happening.
https://preview.redd.it/lsnwjlmr7o221.png?width=1920&format=png&auto=webp&s=aad5525a6181288287829d89d87feb416f028f31
Some blockchain projects are more prone to 51% attacks than others, this is especially true for blockchains using the popular Proof of Work (PoW) consensus mechanism. This PoW algorithm is an economic measure to deter various attacks on the network by requiring some work from the service requester, usually in the form of processing time by a computer. However, it is possible to attack PoW blockchains when you control more than 51% of the total hashing power.
Considering this, smaller blockchains with a relatively low total hashing power combined with the PoW consensus mechanism could easily fall victim to this attack. Take Bitcoin as an example, in the first few years when Bitcoin (and blockchain) was less popular, it was relatively easy to buy more than 51% of the total hashing power and attack the network. However, due to the fact that no individual really paid attention to this flaw, Bitcoin was able to slowly grow a considerable amount of relatively decentralised hashing power over time, thus securing the network.
Nowadays, this flaw is quite well-known and due to this there is a rising amount of attackers who try to better themselves by attacking other blockchains. There are even websites giving rough estimates of the costs involved in creating a 51% attack such as https://www.crypto51.app/.
Let’s take a closer look at some of the projects which have suffered from a 51% attack lately.

Vertcoin

The first specific case of a 51% attack which we are going to discuss is the one that took place this week, the 2nd of december, on the cryptocurrency called Vertcoin. During the attack, the attackers tried to double spend the currency to better themselves.
Coinbase engineer Mark Nesbitt stated that the double spending amounted could have resulted to over a $100,000 loss on the Vertcoin network.
“Vertcoin (VTC) experienced 22 deep chain reorganizations, 15 of which included double spends of VTC. We estimate that these attacks could have resulted in theft of over $100,000. The largest reorganization was over 300 blocks deep.”
According to the Crypto 51 webapp, the attack would only cost about 125 dollar per hour at the time of the attack. With an average block time of 2m and 40s this means the attack took approximately 14 hours and would only cost about 1750 dollars.

AurumCoin

A few weeks ago, AurumCoin also fell victim to a 51% attack. During the attack, one of the few cryptocurrency exchanges who had listed AurumCoin, Cryptopia, lost more than 15 million Aurum coins (which was worth over half a million USD at the time of the attack). AurumCoin claims not to be responsible for the attack and they shifted the blame to Cryptopia, insisting it was hacked. Cryptopia, on the other hand, has not yet acknowledged that they have been hacked.

Easy prey

With a market cap of around 10 million USD, AurumCoin was definitely one of the easier targets. The attacker sent over 500.000 USD worth of AurumCoin to cryptopia to exchange them for another cryptocurrency. Once this transaction went through, the attacker allegedly used more than 51% of the hashing power to reverse the transaction as though it never really happened.
Besides, the last commit on AurumCoin’s Github originates from 2015, which indicates that the developers might have abandoned their project. Moreover, having an average hashrate of just about 80PH/s didn’t help them either. For about 800 USD per hour, one can easily rent more than enough mining power on NiceHash to attack AurumCoin’s network.

Confirmations

According to various reports, it seems like AurumCoin needed twenty confirmations at the time of the attack to send or receive any funds. So, could Cryptopia be responsible for this hack? Well, Cryptopia stated that they do not have any control over the time in which these confirmations are completed. Meaning that, Cryptopia does not seem to have any influence on AurumCoin transactions.
According to the exchange, they are unable to reverse or alter these kind of confirmations, and thus the transactions. In their support section they make the following statement;
“Cryptopia does not perform these ‘Confirmations’ or have any control over the time in which these Confirmations are completed. The Confirmations are completed by miners on the Blockchain. Transactions with higher fees will are far more likely to be added to a block first.”
AurumCoin’s case is just one of the examples which shows the negative consequences for both the coin and the exchange hosting them.

Bitcoin Gold

Bitcoin Gold suffered from a similar attack, though on a larger scale. An amount of 12.239 BTG was deposited to an account on the crypto exchange Bittrex, which was according to the online publication Bitcoinist around 18 million USD at the time of the attack.

Technical background

To go more in depth on how the attacker proceeded with his attack, the following information was posted by BitcoinGold as a statement on their website.
“The attackers address is known by this transaction: ee798dd31beda909c9ca7f843bc58b48dfb40b0f6db83ccd10e892e9c3154ce7 (Originally marked as Confirmed, now marked as Unconfirmed)
The deposit was made as part of this block #529022(Originally marked as mainchain, now marked as Orphaned. It was mined by honest miners.) and was confirmed over the course of nearly six hours on mainchain with 21 additional blocks mined, up to and including this block #529043. (Originally marked as mainchain, now marked as Orphaned. It was mined by honest miners.)
Some time after the 20th block, which satisfied the 20-confirmation requirement for Bittrex, the attacker was able to trade their BTG on Bittrex and withdraw other crypto.
The attacker then released 23 (or more) secretly mined blocks to the mainchain, superseding the existing 22 blocks, and replacing their previous transfer of 12.239 BTG to Bittrex with a transfer of those same 12.239 BTG to themselves.
Below is the new transaction (double-spend) of the original 12239 BTG, sent to their own address instead of Bittrex: 8b8ad1deb88c9b9e36c62e96ff52833d4ca1632076b1092a5848de788181aaaf
It was included in this block #529022, which was first mined by the attackers in secret and not broadcast to the network until nearly 6 hours later. When it was finally broadcast along with 22 or more other secretly-mined blocks, for a total of over 23 blocks, it established the “longest chain” and took over as mainchain, causing the previously seen blocks to become “Orphaned.”
Bittrex delisted Bitcoin Gold shortly afterwards. As a result Bitcoin Gold was forced to upgrade their proof of work to make it, according to them, a less attractive and harder to attack network, even though the possibility to become victim of such an attack still lingers. Besides, they advised all exchanges to raise their confirmation requirements to give time to react on unusually large deposits of BTG — the double-spend attacks were clear outliers in size.

Expenses for the attack

Husam Abboud, a managing partner and co-founder at Brazil-based PDB Capital, has calculated that an average investment of 200.000 USD respectively is necessary for a 51% attack on bitcoin gold.
“Bitcoin Gold, a much smaller network (1/20 the size of Bitcoin Cash network), since the fork, has switched to become ASIC resistant hashing with Equihash algorithm, — same as zCash — It is currently more secure against 51% attack from Bitcoin miners, but vulnerable to attacks from Zcash and other Equihash miners.”
As researched by Investopedia, if for example a zCash miner with +8% of Nethash would switch to mine BitcoinGold, he is already at +51% BTG nethash. This would brings the cost of 51% attack on BTG to 580 ZEC/day which equals around 200.000 USD

A common attack

Similar situations occurred this year with Monacoin and Verge among others, showing that these attacks are not uncommon. Counter measures are being taken by exchanges and networks alike such as increasing the number of confirmations required for making a transaction and ASIC resistant networks. Nevertheless, exchanges have very few defences to this attack, as no number of confirmations can make receiving deposits of the network under attack fully safe, when the attacker has over 51% of the hashing power. Some of the measures might reduce the risk of such an attack, though seem not as efficient as hoped, as even networks that have implemented them, are still being attacked.
‘As long as exchanges are willing to provide customers with assets in response to the deposit of a reversible currency, there’s no reason for attackers to stop this behavior. Expect to see more of these attacks.
Exchanges that support these assets will continue to suffer losses, with the ultimate result that exchanges will be forced to delist these assets. In such an environment, it’s hard to find a compelling argument for why these assets should have value.’
Mark Nesbitt

Smilo’s solution

The Smilo network solves this problem with its Smilo BFT+ consensus mechanism. This consensus mechanism circumvents 51% attacks by having one valid blockchain and one valid block created by one chosen speaker. Next to 51% attacks, Smilo’s consensus is also far less vulnerable to a number of other attacks, making it a saver option for both users and exchanges.
Smilo will always require more than 66% consensus with the Smilo BFT+ algorithm, a node will never add a block to his chain when this block has been declined. Moreover, even when more than 66% of the nodes approve a block, but Node A declined the block, Node A will not add the block to his chain, nor will the follow up blocks add this block to the chain.
All Smilo Clients (like the API, full wallets, etcetera) are able to verify both blocks and transactions, providing a two-factor authentication for light clients. Clients can validate if it is connected to “Good actors” or “Bad actors”, depending on the blockchain hash, and therefore decide to send a transaction to a Good or Bad actor.
Since Smilo BFT+ Blacklists ‘Bad actors’, each Bad Actor will become an orphan/bad chain (fork). Besides, considering the fact you need 10.000 Smilo to act as a node, an attacking entity needs to own an immense amount of Smilo to start with, which makes it impractical as it will prove a great financial loss for the attacker. This makes Smilo 99.9% secure against sibling attacks.
For example: 250 nodes are securing the network: - 84 nodes are ok! - 166 nodes are bad! 166 * 10.000 = 1.66 million Smilo (>66% of the actors)
Even if the attacker pulls it off to create a bad block, the 84 good nodes will not add this block (because it is invalid). The next speaker in line (or the third, or the fourth, or the fifth) will create a correct block which will be added to the nodes. Since our full-clients validate nodes and blocks by themselves, they will not send any transactions to the wrong fork. This results in a fork which will only survive for as long as the bad actors are turned on.
Be part of the Smilo hybrid blockchain movement!
Join our Telegram, Twitter and follow us on other social media for the latest updates! Medium | LinkedIn | Facebook | Reddit
For more information about the Smilo Platform check out our; Website | Video | Whitepaper | Onepager | Whitelist
submitted by Smilo-platform to SmiloPlatform [link] [comments]

Market Sentiment (#6)

...what just happened over the past couple days?
Parity
For those out of the loop, digital-wallet-creator Parity done goofed last Tuesday, when a novice developer (the now-legendary devops199) 'accidentally' locked away 300 million dollars' worth of Ether.
How, you ask? Well, put simply - Ethereum smart contracts require an address to take ownership of the contract. Owners of the contract can then choose to send something called a kill() function into the contract - effectively locking all Ether within the contract and throwing away the keys. Our hero, devops199, felt bored one day and decided to spend his time doing what any of us do when bored - sending random kill() functions to random addresses. You know, just another Tuesday.
Only this time, idiocy from Parity combined with lunacy from devops199, and the kill() function actually triggered. Locking away 300 million dollars worth of Ether that belonged to regular users like you and me. The only way to access those funds is through a hard-fork of Ethereum. Some day in the future, when ETH is worth a lot more, that inaccessible vault will be worth as much as the GDP of a small country!
Ethereum lead dev Vitalik has stated that they will not be hard-forking Ethereum in order to reclaim the lost Ether. This is primarily because they do not wish to set a precedent where every error would be forked away at the cost of massive public confusion. Although I daresay they might reverse the transaction during Constantinople.
Interesting Fact: Parity is founded (and probably at least partially coded) by one of the lead developers of Ethereum!
Segwit2x
In perhaps the most concerted and drawn-out pump and dump ever, Segwit2X has been cancelled. Let me just point out the issues that irk me before speaking about prices:
It must be noted that there are a few parties that feel the fork is still going to take place.
Market Sentiment
I managed to see the news 5 mins after it was posted, so I sold my BTC at $7800 and got into the alts of my choosing just in time. The price spike has been quite profitable! Few thoughts:
Coinspiracy
Now to sound ominous, but I can't shake the feeling that there's something else at play here - something the wider market hasn't realized yet:
Whales are making waves and we are getting caught in the crossfire.
submitted by VikNoob to u/VikNoob [link] [comments]

Rebit.ph vs Western Union: A user's review

On Sunday I sent 10k php using Rebit.ph and 10k php using Western Union from the UK to a friend in the Philippines.
The Western Union transfer was pretty straightforward. I logged on to their website (I've previously given them my bank details) and sent the money. It cost £141.38. I had to tell my friend a secret number and my friend would pick up the cash from a Western Union guarded hut type thing.
On Rebit.ph, I had to provide more information about the receiver, but less about myself. I decided to send to 'LBC', which has a similar pickup service to WU. Rebit told me I had to pay them 0.374106 bitcoins within 15 minutes, which I did. I then repurchased the bitcoins, checking bitbargain and localbitcoins for the best price. In the end, I ended up paying £142.94, so Rebit cost slightly more than WU on this occasion. However, there is quite a lot of variability in the price you can get when you buy bitcoins here, so I'd want to do more trials before I concluded that WU was cheaper. I'd also caution that bitcoin is expensive in the UK, and sending to Rebit from a different country is likely to work out significantly cheaper.
I should mention that the Rebit price includes a 100php fee from them and a 300php 'transfer fee', which I think is related to my collection option, and wouldn't appear if I'd sent to a bank account.
However, the Rebit story isn't over. My bitcoin transaction got a couple of confirmations quite quickly, but not quickly enough to beat the 15 minute timer. I'm not sure how many confirmations Rebit require to accept the payment, but the amount required increased to 0.374396, so I had to send an extra 0.00029 btc plus transaction fee, which was irritating. I'd recommend that Rebit work out a scheme for avoiding this problem. Maybe they should accept the transaction after a single confirmation, and hold the timer on seeing an unconfirmed transaction until a non-tiny block has been discovered. I've never heard of a transaction with a single confirmation being reversed.
Despite this hiccough, the transactions eventually were accepted. The receiver got a text message from Rebit, and had to do something I'm not clear about (but which didn't seem too onerous) on the internet to arrange to receive the funds.
Overall, the Rebit route worked smoothly enough except for having to wait for the bitcoin confirmation, and then adjust the amount I paid. Rebit seem to be an honest company, and if I were in a country (such as the US), where bitcoin is significantly cheaper than here, or if I wanted to reduce my bitcoin holdings, I'd certainly use them again.
submitted by astrolabe to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

BIP99½ - An Optimized Procedure to Increase the Block Size Limit

BIP: 99½
Title: An Optimized Procedure to Increase the Block Size Limit
Author: Jorge Stolfi jstolfi
Status: Crufty Draft
Created: 2015-08-30
EDIT: Changed the critical block number from 385000 to 390000 (~2016-01-02).
EDIT2: Slight wording changes ("hopefully" "assuming" as per tsontar).
EDIT3: Changed again critical block number to 395000 (~2016-02-06). Note that the traffic has increased faster than expected, so all predictions would have to be updated.
ABSTRACT
This BIP proposes setting the maximum block size to 8 MB starting with block number 395000.
MOTIVATION
This proposal aims to postpone by a few years the imminent congestion of the Bitcoin network, which is expected to occur in 2016 if traffic continues to increase at the present rate. It also aims to reduce the risk of a crippling "spam attack", that could delay a large fraction of the legitimate traffic for hours or days at a relatively modest cost for the attacker.
Congestion
The current average traffic T is ~120'000 transactions issued by all clients, per day (~1.38 tx/s, ~0.45 MB/block, ~830 tx/block assuming ~530 bytes/tx).
The maximum network capacity C with 1 MB blocks, revealed by the recent "stress tests", is ~200'000 tx/day (~2.32 tx/s, ~0.75 MB/block, ~1390 tx/block). Presumably, the main reason why it is less than 1 MB/block is because certain shortcuts taken by miners often force them to mine empty blocks. Note that the traffic now is 60% of the effective capacity.
Since the traffic rate has weekly, daily, and random fluctuations by several tens of percent, recurrent "traffic jams" (when T is higher than C for several tens of minutes) will start to occur when the average daily traffic is still well below the capacity -- say 80% (160'000 tx/day) or even less. For transactions issued during a traffic jam, the average wait time for first confirmation, which is normally 10-15 minutes, will jump to hours or even days. Fee adjustments may change the order in which individual transactions are confirmed, but the average delay will not be reduced by a single second.
Over the past 12 months, the traffic has approximately doubled, from ~60'000 tx/day. The growth seems to be linear, at the rate of 5000 tx/day per month. If the growth continues to be linear, it should reach 160'000 tx/day in ~8 months (before May 2016). If the growth is assumed to be exponential, it should reach that level in ~5 months, in February 2016.
If the maximum block size were lifted to 8 MB, assuming that empty and partial blocks would continue to be mined in about the same proportion as today, the effective capacity of the network should rise in proportion, to ~6 MB/block (1'600'000 tx/day, 5.90 tx/s). Based on last year's growth, the 80% capacity level (1'280'000 tx/day) will be reached in ~19 years assuming linear growth, and ~3.4 years assuming exponential growth.
Spam attacks
An effective spam attack would have to generate enough spam transactions, with suitable fees, to reduce the effective capacity of the network to a fraction of the legitimate traffic. Then the fraction of the traffic that cannot be serviced will pile up in the queues, forming a growing backlog until the spam attack ends; and the backlog will then clear at the rate limited by the free capacity C - T.
With the current capacity C (200'000 tx/day) and traffic T (120'000 tx/day) a spam attack that blocks half the legitimate traffic would require a spam rate S of at least C - T/2 = 140'000 tx/day (1.62 tx/s, 0.52 MB/block). The fee F per kB offered by those transactions would have to be larger than all but the top ~420 transactions in the queue. If that fee were to be 1 USD/tx, the attack may cost as little as 140'000 USD/day. The backlog of legitimate transactions would grow at the rate of T/2 = ~2500 tx/hour, and, when the attack stops, will be cleared at the maximum rate C - T = ~3300 tx/hour.
With 8 MB block limit, assuming that the effective capacity C will be 1.6 M tx/day and traffic T at 60% of the capacity (like today; expected to be the case 3 years from now), a spam attack that blocks half the traffic would require C - T/2 = 1.12 M tx/day of spam (8 times what an attack would require today). If the required fee F were to be 1 USD/tx, the attack would cost 1.12 million USD per day (ditto).
DEPLOYMENT
The maximum block size would be programmed to be 1 MB until block number 394999, and 8 MB starting with block 395000; which, at 144 blocks/day, is expected to be mined around 2016-02-06.
On the test network, the increase will start with block 390000, which is expected to be mined around 2016-01-02.
In the interest of a quick and uneventful passage through that block number, major miners should publicly state their approval or rejection of it as soon as possible.
If and when the plan is approved by miners comprising a majority of the hashpower, all miners and clients should be alerted and urged to upgrade or modify their software so that it accepts blocks up to 8 MB after the stated block number.
If and when the plan is rejected by miners comprising a majority of the hashpower, all miners and clients shoudl be alerted and warned that this BIP will not be implemented.
RATIONALE
The proposal should have a good chance to be approved and implemented, since the five largest Chinese miners (who have more than 50% of the total hash rate) have already stated in writing that they would agree to an increase of the limit to 8 MB by the end of the year, even theough they did not approve futher increases (in particular, the doublings specified by BIP101). Several major services and other miners have expressed approval for such an increase in the net.
OBJECTIONS TO THIS PROPOSAL
There have been claims that increasing the block size beyond 1 MB would have negative consequences for the health of the network. However, no serious effects were demonstrated, by argument or experimentally. There are worrisome trends in sme parameters, such as the number of full nodes and and the centralization of mining; but those trends obviously are not related to the block size limit, and there is no reason to expect that they would be halted or reversed by imposing a 1 MB cap on the block size starting next year.
It should be noted that the increase is only on the block size limit; the actual block sizes will continue to be determined by the traffic. Even with optimistic forecasts, the average block size should not exceed the 1 MB limit before the end of 2016. If any harmful effects of larger blocks are demonstrated until then, the limt can be reduced again by decision of a majority of the miners.
It has been claimed that netowrk congestion would be beneficial since it would create a "fee market" whereby clients would compete for space in the blocks by paying higer transaction fees. It has been claimed that those fees would compensate for the drop in miners revenue that will follow the next reward halving in 2016. It has also been claimed that the higher fees will inhibit spam and other undesirable uses of the blockchain. However, the "fee market" would be a fundamental totally untested change in the client view of the system. It proposes a novel pricing mecanism that is not used by any existing commercial service, physical or internet-based. There is no evidence that the "fee market" would work as claimed, or that it would achieve any of its expected results. (Rather, there are arguments that it would not.) Congestion would defintely put a cap on usage of the protocol, reduce its value as a payment system, and drive away much legitimate traffic. Congestion, and the unpredictable delays that result from it, are also unlikely to make bitcoin attractive to high-value non-payment uses, such as settlements of other networks or notarization of asset trades. And, mainly, there is no reason to expect that the fee market will generate enough fees to cover the 500'000 USD/day that the miners will lose with the next halving.
COMPATIBILITY
If this change to the Bitcoin protocol gets implemented by a majority of the miners, all players will have to replace or modify their software so that it accepts blocks up to 8 MB after block 395000.
Miners who fail to do so may soon find themselves mining a minority branch of the blockchain, that grows at a much slower rate, will probably be congested from the start, and will probably die soon. That branch will probably be ignored by all major services, therefore any rewards that they earn on that branch will probably be worthless and soon unspendable.
Clients who fail to upgrade or fix their software will not "see" the majority-mined chain once someone creates a block with more than 1 MB. Then, those clients will either be unable to move their coins until they fix their software, or may see only the minority branch above. Transactions that they issue before the fix may get confirmed on the main branch, but may appear to remain unconfirmed on the minority chain. Useof tools like replace-by-fee or child-pays-for-parent while in that state may give confusing results.
DISCLAIMER
The author has never owned or used bitcoin, and has a rather negative view of it. In fact, he is a regular contributor to /buttcoin. While he sees bitcoin as a significant advance toward its stated goal ("a peer-to-peer payment system that does not depend on trusted third parties"), and finds bitcoin interesting as a computer science experiment, he is quite skeptical about its chances of widespread adoption. He also deplores the transformation of bitcoin into a negative-sum pyramid investment schema, which not only has spread much misery and distress allover the world, but has also spoiled the experiment by turning mining into an industrial activity controlled by half a dozen large companies. He hopes that the pyramid will collapse as soon as possible, and that the price will drop to the level predicted by the money velocity equation, so that the aberrant mining industry will disappear. (However, he does not think that this BIP will help to achieve this goal; quite the opposite, unfortunately.)
submitted by jstolfi to bitcoin_uncensored [link] [comments]

F2Pool has enabled full replace-by-fee | Peter Todd | Jun 19 2015

Peter Todd on Jun 19 2015:
Yesterday F2Pool, currently the largest pool with 21% of the hashing
power, enabled full replace-by-fee (RBF) support after discussions with
me. This means that transactions that F2Pool has will be replaced if a
conflicting transaction pays a higher fee. There are no requirements for
the replacement transaction to pay addresses that were paid by the
previous transaction.
I'm a user. What does this mean for me?
In the short term, very little. Wallet software aimed at average users
has no ability to reliably detect conditions where an unconfirmed
transaction may be double-spent by the sender. For example, Schildbach's
Bitcoin Wallet for Android doesn't even detect double-spends of
unconfirmed transactions when connected to a RBF or Bitcoin XT nodes
that propagate them. The least sophisticated double-spend attack
possibly - simply broadcasting two conflicting transactions at the same
time - has about 50% probability of success against these wallets.
Additionally, SPV wallets based on bitcoinj can't even detect invalid
transactions reliably, instead trusting the full node(s) it is connected
too over the unauthenticated, unencrypted, P2P protocol to do validation
for them. For instance due to a unfixed bug¹ Bitcoin XT nodes will relay
double-spends that spend the output of the conflicting transaction. I've
personally tested this with Schildbach's Bitcoin Wallet for Android,
which shows such invalid transactions as standard, unconfirmed,
transactions.
Users should continue to assume that unconfirmed transactions could be
trivially reversed by the sender until the first confirmation. In
general, only the sender can reverse a transaction, so if you do trust
the sender feel free to assume an unconfirmed transaction will
eventually confirm. However, if you do not trust the sender and/or have
no other recourse if they double-spend you, wait until at least the
first confirmation before assuming the transaction will go through.
In the long term, miner support of full RBF has a number of advantages
to users, allowing you to more efficiently make transactions, paying
lower fees. However you'll need a wallet supporting these features; none
exist yet.
I'm a business. What does this mean for me?
If you use your own node to verify transactions, you probably are in a
similar situation as average users, so again, this means very little to
you.
If you use a payment processotransaction API such as BitPay, Coinbase,
BlockCypher, etc. you may or may not be accepting unconfirmed
transactions, and they may or may not be "guaranteed" by your payment
processor even if double-spent. If like most merchants you're using the
API such that confirmations are required prior to accepting orders (e.g.
taking a meaningful loss such as shipping a product if the tx is
reversed) nothing changes for you. If not I recommend you contact your
payment processor.
I'm a miner. Why should I support replace-by-fee?
Whether full or first-seen-safe⁵ RBF support (along with
child-pays-for-parent) is an important step towards a fully functioning
transaction fee market that doesn't lead to users' transactions getting
mysteriously "stuck", particularly during network flooding
events/attacks. A better functioning fee market will help reduce
pressure to increase the blocksize, particularly from the users creating
the most valuable transactions.
Full RBF also helps make use of the limited blockchain space more
efficiently, with up to 90%+ transaction size savings possible in some
transaction patterns. (e.g. long payment chains⁶) More users in less
blockchain space will lead to higher overall fees per block.
Finally as we'll discuss below full RBF prevents a number of serious
threats to the existing level playing field that miners operate in.
Why can't we make accepting unconfirmed txs from untrusted people safe?
For a decentralized wallet, the situation is pretty bleak. These wallets
only have a handful of connections to the network, with no way of
knowing if those connections give an accurate view of what transactions
miners actually know about.
The only serious attempt to fix this problem for decentralized wallets
that has been actually deployed is Andresen/Harding's double-spend
relaying, implemented in Bitcoin XT. It relays up to one double-spend
transaction per double-spent txout, with the intended effect to warn
recipients. In practice however this functionality makes it easier to
double-spend rather than harder, by giving an efficient and easy way to
get double-spends to miners after the fact. Notably my RBF
implementation even connects to Bitcoin XT nodes, reserving a % of all
incoming and outgoing connection slots for them.
Additionally Bitcoin XT's double-spend relaying is subject to attacks
include bandwidth exhaustion, sybil attacks, and Gervais's non-sybil
interactive attacks⁷ among many others.
What about centralised wallets?
Here the solutions being deployed, planned, and proposed are harmful,
and even represent serious threats to Bitcoin's decentralization.
Confidence factors
Many services such as BlockCypher² have attempted to predict the
probability that unconfirmed transactions will be mined, often
guaranteeing merchants payment³ even in the event of a double-spend. The
key component of these predictions is to sybil attack the P2P network as
a whole, connecting to as many nodes as possible to measure transaction
propagation. Additionally these services connect to pools directly via
the getblocktemplate protocol, repeatedly downloading via GBT the lists
of transactions in the to-be-mined blocks to determine what transactions
miners are attempting to mine.
None of these measures scale, wasting significant network and miner
resources; in one instance a sybil attack by Chainalysis even completely
blocked the users of the SPV wallet Breadwallet⁴ from accessing the
network. These measures also don't work very well, giving double-spend
attackers incentives to sybil attack miners themselves.
Transaction processing contracts with miners
The next step after measuring propagation fails is to contract with
miners directly, signing contracts with as much of the hashing power as
possible to get the transactions they want mined and double-spends
rejected. The miners/pools would then provide an authenticated API
endpoint for exclusive use of this service that would allow the service
to add and remove specific transactions to the mempool on demand.
There's a number of serious problems with this:
1) Mining contracts can be used to double-spend
...even when they're being used "honestly".
Suppose Alice is a merchant using CoinPayCypher, who has contracts with
75% of the hashing power. Bob, another merchant, meanwhile uses a
decentralized Bitcoin Core backend for payments to his website.
Mallory wants to double-spend Bob's to buy his expensive products. He
can do this by creating a transaction, tx1, that pays Alice, followed by
a second transaction, tx2, that pays Bob. In any circumstance when
Mallory can convince Bob to accept tx2, but prevent Bob from seeing tx1,
the chance of Malory's double-spend succeeding becomes ~75% because
CoinPayCypher's contracts with mining ensure the transaction paying
Alice will get mined.
Of course, dishonest use and/or compromise makes double-spending
trivial: Malory can use the API credentials to ask miners to reject
Bob's payment at any time.
2) They still don't work, without 51% attacking other miners
Even if CoinPayCypher has 75% of the hashing power on contract, that's
still a potentially 75% chance of being double-spent. The 25% of miners
who haven't signed contracts have no decentralized way of ensuring
they don't create blocks with double-spends, let alone at low cost. If
those miners won't or can't sign contracts with CoinPayCypher the only
next step available is to reject their blocks entirely.
3) Legal contracts give the advantage to non-anonymous miners in
Western jurisdictions
Suppose CoinPayCypher is a US company, and you're a miner with 1%
hashing power located in northern China. The barriers to you succesfully
negotiating a contract with CoinPayCypher are significant. You don't
speak the same langauge, you're in a completely different jurisdiction
so enforcing the legal contract is difficult, and being just 1%,
CoinPayCypher sees you as insignificant.
Who's going to get the profitable hashing power contracts first, if at
all? Your English speaking competitors in the west. This is inherently a
pressure towards centralization of mining.
Why isn't this being announced on the bitcoin-security list first?
I've had repeated discussions with services vulnerable to double-spends;
they have been made well aware of the risk they're taking. If they've
followed my own and others' advice they'll at minimum have constant
monitoring of the rate of double-spends both on their own services and
on the P2P network in general.
If you choose to take a risk you should accept the consequences.
How do I actually use full RBF?
First get the full-RBF patch to v0.10.2:
[https://github.com/petertodd/bitcoin/tree/replace-by-fee-v0.10.2](https://github.com/petertodd/bitcoin/tree/replace-by-fee-v0.10.2) 
The above implementation of RBF includes additional code to find and
preferentially connect to other RBF nodes, as well as Bitcoin XT nodes.
Secondly, try out my replace-by-fee-tools at:
[https://github.com/petertodd/replace-by-fee-tools](https://github.com/petertodd/replace-by-fee-tools) 
You can watch double-spends on the network here:
[http://respends.thinlink.com/](http://respends.thinlink.com/) 
References
1) "Replace-by-fee v0.10.2 - Serious DoS attack fixed! - Also novel
variants of existing attacks w/ Bitcoin XT and Android Bitcoin Wallet", 
Peter Todd, May 23rd 2015, Bitcoin-development mailing list,
http://www.mail-archive.com/[email protected]/msg07795.html
2) "From Zero to Hero: Bitcoin Transactions in 8 Seconds",
June 2nd, 2014, Erik Voorhees,
https://medium.com/blockcypher-blog/from-zero-to-hero-bitcoin-transactions-in-8-seconds-7c9edcb3b734
3) Coinbase Merchant API, Accessed Jun 19th 2015,
https://developers.coinbase.com/docs/merchants/callbacks#confirmations
4) "Chainalysis CEO Denies 'Sybil Attack' on Bitcoin's Network",
March 14th 2015, Grace Caffyn, Coindesk,
http://www.coindesk.com/chainalysis-ceo-denies-launching-sybil-attack-on-bitcoin-network/
5) "First-Seen-Safe Replace-by-Fee",
May 25th 2015, Peter Todd, Bitcoin-development mailing list,
http://www.mail-archive.com/bitcoin-development%40lists.sourceforge.net/msg07829.html
6) "Cost savings by using replace-by-fee, 30-90%",
May 25th 2015, Peter Todd, Bitcoin-development mailing list,
http://www.mail-archive.com/[email protected]/msg07813.html
7) "Tampering with the Delivery of Blocks and Transactions in Bitcoin",
Arthur Gervais and Hubert Ritzdorf and Ghassan O. Karame and Srdjan Capkun, Cryptology ePrint Archive: Report 2015/578, Jun 10th 2015, [http://eprint.iacr.org/2015/578](http://eprint.iacr.org/2015/578) 

'peter'[:-1]@petertodd.org
0000000000000000070a2bb3b92c20d5c2c971e6e1a7abe55cdbbe6a2dd9a5ad
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Block size adjustment idea - expedience fees + difficulty scaling proportional to block size (+ fee pool) | Natanael | Mar 30 2017

Natanael on Mar 30 2017:
I had these following ideas as I was thinking about how to allow larger
blocks without incentivizing the creation of excessively large blocks. I
don't know how much of this is novel, I'd appreciate if anybody could link
to any relevant prior art. I'm making no claims on this, anything novel in
here is directly released into public domain.
In short, I'm trying to rely on simple but direct incentives to improve the
behavior of Bitcoin.
Feedback requested. Some simulations requested, see below if you're willing
to help. Any questions are welcome.
Expedience fees. Softfork compatible.
You want to really make sure your transaction gets processed quickly?
Transactions could have a second fee type, a specially labeled
anyone-can-spend output with an op_return value defining a "best-before"
block number and some function describing the decline of the fee value for
every future block, such that before block N the miners can claim the full
expedience fee + the standard fee (if any), between block N+1 and N+X the
miner can claim a reduced expedience fee + standard fee, afterwards only
the standard fee.
When a transaction is processed late such that not the full expedience fee
can be claimed, the remainder of the expedience fee output is returned to
the specified address among the inputs/outputs (could be something like
in#3 for the address used by the 3rd UTXO input). This would have to be
done for all remaining expedience fees within the last transaction in the
block, inserted there by the miner.
These additional UTXO:s does increase overhead somewhat, but hopefully not
by too much. If we're going to modify the transaction syntax eventually,
then we could take the chance to design for this to reduce overhead.
My current best idea for how to handle returned expedience fees in
multiuser transactions (coinjoin, etc) is to donate it to an agreed upon
address. For recurring donation addresses (the fee pool included!), this
reduces the number of return UTXO:s in the fee processing transaction.
The default client policy may be to split the entire fee across an
expedience fee and a fee pool donation, where the donation part becomes
larger the later the transaction gets processed. This is expected to slow
down the average inclusion speed of already delayed transactions, but they
remain profitable to include.
The dynamics here is simple, a miner is incentivized to process a
transaction with an expedience fee before a standard fee of the same
value-per-bit in order to not reduce the total value of the available fees
of all standing transactions they can process. The longer they wait, the
less total fees available.
Sidenote: a steady stream of expedience fees reduces the profitability of
block withholding attacks (!), at some threshold it should make it entirely
unprofitable vs standard mining. This is due to the increased risk of
losing valuable expedience fees added after you finished your first block
(as the available value will be reduced in your block #2, vs what other
miners can claim while still mining on that previous block).
(Can somebody verify this with simulations?)
Fee pool. Softfork compatible.
We want to smooth out fee payments too for the future when the subsidy
drops, to prevent deliberate forking to steal fees. We can introduce a
designated P2SH anyone-can-spend fee pool address. The miner can never
claim the full fees from his block or claim the full amount in the pool,
only some percentage of both. The remainder goes back into the pool (this
might be done at the end of the same expedience fee processing transaction
described above). Anybody can deliberately pay to the pool.
The fee pool is intended to act as a "buffer" such that it remains
profitable to not try to steal fees but to just mine normally, even during
relatively extreme fee value variance (consider the end of a big
international shopping weekend).
The fee value claimed by the miners between blocks is allowed to vary, but
we want to avoid order-of-magnitude size variation (10x). We do however
want the effect of expedience fees to have an impact. Perhaps some
logarithmic function can smooth it out? Forcing larger fees to be
distributed over longer time periods?
Block size dependent difficulty scaling. Hardfork required.
Larger blocks means greater difficulty - but it doesn't scale linearly,
rather a little less than linearly. That means miners can take a penalty in
difficulty to claim a greater number of high fee transactions in the same
amount of time (effectively increasing "block size bitrate"), increasing
their profits. When such profitable fees aren't available, they have to
reduce block size.
In other words, the users literally pay miners to increase block size (or
don't pay, which reduces it).
(Sidenote: I am in favor of combining this with the idea of a 32 MB max
blocksize (or larger), with softforked scheduled lower size caps (perhaps
starting at 4 MB max) that grows according to a schedule. This reduces the
risk of rapidly increasing load before we have functional second layer
scaling in place.)
In order for a miner to profit from adding additional transactions, their
fees must exceed the calculated cost of the resulting difficulty penalty to
make it worth it to create a larger block. Such loads are expected during
international shopping weekends.
With only a few available high value transactions the incentive becomes the
reverse, to create a smaller block with lower difficulty to faster claim
those fees.
To keep the average 10 minute block rate and to let this mechanism shift
the "block size bitrate" as according to the fee justified block size
changes, we set an Expected blocksize value that changes over time, and we
change the difficulty target into the Standard difficulty target, where
each block must reach a Scaled difficulty target .
In terms of math we do something like this:
Scaled difficulty = Standard difficulty * f(blocksize), where f would
likely be some logarithmic function, and blocksize is defined in terms of
units of Expected blocksize (a block 1.5x larger than Expected blocksize
gets a value of 1.5).
When we retarget the Standard difficulty and Expected blocksize we do this:
Standard difficulty = Network hashrate per 10 minutes (approximately same
as before, but now we take the Scaled difficulty of the last period's
previous blocks into consideration)
Standard blocksize = Recent average effective block bitrate = (sum of
recent (weighted!) block sizes / length of timeperiod) / number of blocks
in a retargeting period.
Thus, generating larger blocks drives up the long term standard block
bitrate, smaller blocks reduces it, in both cases we strive to average 1
block per 10 minutes.
Combining this with expedience fees makes it even more effective;
There's always a cutoff for where a miner stops including unprocessed
transactions and let the rest remain for the next block. For standard fees,
this would result in a fairly static block size and transactions backlog.
With expedience fees your transaction can bypass standard fees with same
value-per-bit, as explained above, because otherwise the miners reduces the
value of their future expected fees. The more people that do this, the
greater incentive to not delay transactions and instead increase the
blocksize. (Can somebody help with the math here? I want simulations of
this.)
(Sidenote: I'm in favor of RBF, replace-by-fee. This makes the above work
much more smoothly. Anybody relying on the security of unconfirmed
transactions for any significant value have to rely on some kind of
incentive protected multisignature transaction, including LN type second
layer schemes. The other option is just not secure.)
If load is low then you can add a high expedience fee to incentivize the
creation of a smaller block with your transaction, since difficulty will be
reduced for the smaller block. This means the miner has a higher chance of
beating the competition. Adding additional lower fee transactions may
reduce his average value-per-bit to become less profitable.
Miners simply aim to maximize their fees-per-bit, while also paying as
little as possible in mining costs.
To make this work as intended for those willing to explicitly pay to reduce
block size, one could tag such an expedience fee with a maximum allowed
blocksize (where the fee will be claimed in such a smaller block if it is
the more profitable option), such that it won't be countered by others
making more high expedience fees to increase blocksize. Note: I'm not
particularly in favor of this idea, just mentioning the possibility.
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Long live decentralized bitcoin: A reading list

Newbs might not know this, but bitcoin recently came out of an intense internal drama. Between July 2015 and August 2017 bitcoin was attacked by external forces who were hoping to destroy the very properties that made bitcoin valuable in the first place. This culminated in the creation of segwit and the UASF (user activated soft fork) movement. The UASF was successful, segwit was added to bitcoin and with that the anti-decentralization side left bitcoin altogether and created their own altcoin called bcash. Bitcoin's price was $2500, soon after segwit was activated the price doubled to $5000 and continued rising until here we are today at $15000.
During this drama, I took time away from writing open source code to help educate and argue on reddit, twitter and other social media. I came up with a reading list for quickly copypasting things. It may be interesting today for newbs or anyone who wants a history lesson on what exactly happened during those two years when bitcoin's very existence as a decentralized low-trust currency was questioned. Now the fight has essentially been won, I try not to comment on reddit that much anymore. There's nothing left to do except wait for Lightning and similar tech to become mature (or better yet, help code it and test it)
In this thread you can learn about block sizes, latency, decentralization, segwit, ASICBOOST, lightning network and all the other issues that were debated endlessly for over two years. So when someone tries to get you to invest in bcash, remind them of the time they supported Bitcoin Unlimited.

Summary / The fundamental tradeoff

A trip to the moon requires a rocket with multiple stages by gmaxwell (must read) https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/438hx0/a_trip_to_the_moon_requires_a_rocket_with/
Bram Cohen, creator of bittorrent, argues against a hard fork to a larger block size https://medium.com/@bramcohen/bitcoin-s-ironic-crisis-32226a85e39f#.558vetum4
gmaxwell's summary of the debate https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=1343716.msg13701818#msg13701818
Core devs please explain your vision (see luke's post which also argues that blocks are already too big) https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/61yvvv/request_to_core_devs_please_explain_your_vision/
Mod of btc speaking against a hard fork https://www.reddit.com/btc/comments/57hd14/core_reaction_to_viabtc_this_week/d8scokm/
It's becoming clear to me that a lot of people don't understand how fragile bitcoin is https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/59kflj/its_becoming_clear_to_me_that_a_lot_of_people/
Blockchain space must be costly, it can never be free https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/4og24h/i_just_attended_the_distributed_trade_conference/
Charlie Lee with a nice analogy about the fundamental tradeoff https://medium.com/@SatoshiLite/eating-the-bitcoin-cake-fc2b4ebfb85e#.444vr8shw
gmaxwell on the tradeoffs https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=1520693.msg15303746#msg15303746
jratcliff on the layering https://www.reddit.com/btc/comments/59upyh/segwit_the_poison_pill_for_bitcoin/d9bstuw/

Scaling on-chain will destroy bitcoin's decentralization

Peter Todd: How a floating blocksize limit inevitably leads towards centralization [Feb 2013] https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=144895.0 mailing list https://lists.linuxfoundation.org/pipermail/bitcoin-dev/2013-February/002176.html with discussion on reddit in Aug 2015 https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/3hnvi8/just_a_little_history_lesson_for_everyone_new_the/
Nick Szabo's blog post on what makes bitcoin so special http://unenumerated.blogspot.com/2017/02/money-blockchains-and-social-scalability.html
There is academic research showing that even small (2MB) increases to the blocksize results in drastic node dropoff counts due to the non-linear increase of RAM needed. http://bravenewcoin.com/assets/Whitepapers/block-size-1.1.1.pdf
Reddit summary of above link. In this table, you can see it estimates a 40% drop immediately in node count with a 2MB upgrade and a 50% over 6 months. At 4mb, it becomes 75% immediately and 80% over 6 months. At 8, it becomes 90% and 95%. https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/5qw2wa_future_led_by_bitcoin_unlimited_is_a/dd442pw/
Larger block sizes make centralization pressures worse (mathematical) https://petertodd.org/2016/block-publication-incentives-for-miners
Talk at scalingbitcoin montreal, initial blockchain synchronization puts serious constraints on any increase in the block size https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TgjrS-BPWDQ&t=2h02m06s with transcript https://scalingbitcoin.org/transcript/montreal2015/block-synchronization-time
Bitcoin's P2P Network: The Soft Underbelly of Bitcoin https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Y6kibPzbrIc someone's notes: https://gist.github.com/romyilano/5e22394857a39889a1e5 reddit discussion https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/4py5df/so_f2pool_antpool_btcc_pool_are_actually_one_pool/
In adversarial environments blockchains dont scale https://scalingbitcoin.org/transcript/hongkong2015/in-adversarial-environments-blockchains-dont-scale
Why miners will not voluntarily individually produce smaller blocks https://scalingbitcoin.org/transcript/hongkong2015/why-miners-will-not-voluntarily-individually-produce-smaller-blocks
Hal Finney: bitcoin's blockchain can only be a settlement layer (mostly interesting because it's hal finney and its in 2010) https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/3sb5nj/most_bitcoin_transactions_will_occur_between/
petertodd's 2013 video explaining this https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cZp7UGgBR0I
luke-jr's summary https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/61yvvv/request_to_core_devs_please_explain_your_vision/dficjhj/
Another jratcliff thread https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/6lmpll/explaining_why_big_blocks_are_bad/

Full blocks are not a disaster

Blocks must be always full, there must always be a backlog https://medium.com/@bergealex4/bitcoin-is-unstable-without-the-block-size-size-limit-70db07070a54#.kh2vi86lr
Same as above, the mining gap means there must always be a backlog talk: https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=2453&v=iKDC2DpzNbw transcript: https://scalingbitcoin.org/transcript/montreal2015/security-of-diminishing-block-subsidy
Backlogs arent that bad https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/49p011/was_the_fee_event_really_so_bad_my_mind_is/
Examples where scarce block space causes people to use precious resources more efficiently https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/4kxxvj/i_just_singlehandedly_increased_bitcoin_network/
https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/47d4m2/why_does_coinbase_make_2_transactions_pe
https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/53wucs/why_arent_blocks_full_yet/d7x19iv
Full blocks are fine https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/5uld1a/misconception_full_blocks_mean_bitcoin_is_failing/
High miner fees imply a sustainable future for bitcoin https://www.reddit.com/BitcoinMarkets/comments/680tvf/fundamentals_friday_week_of_friday_april_28_2017/dgwmhl7/
gmaxwell on why full blocks are good https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/6b57ca/full_blocks_good_or_bad/dhjxwbz/
The whole idea of the mempool being "filled" is wrong headed. The mempool doesn't "clog" or get stuck, or anything like that. https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/7cusnx/to_the_people_still_doubting_that_this_congestion/dpssokf/

Segwit

What is segwit

luke-jr's longer summary https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/6033h7/today_is_exactly_4_months_since_the_segwit_voting/df3tgwg/?context=1
Charlie Shrem's on upgrading to segwit https://twitter.com/CharlieShrem/status/842711238853513220
Original segwit talk at scalingbitcoin hong kong + transcript https://youtu.be/zchzn7aPQjI?t=110
https://scalingbitcoin.org/transcript/hongkong2015/segregated-witness-and-its-impact-on-scalability
Segwit is not too complex https://www.reddit.com/btc/comments/57vjin/segwit_is_not_great/d8vos33/
Segwit does not make it possible for miners to steal coins, contrary to what some people say https://www.reddit.com/btc/comments/5e6bt0/concerns_with_segwit_and_anyone_can_spend/daa5jat/?context=1
https://keepingstock.net/segwit-eli5-misinformation-faq-19908ceacf23#.r8hlzaquz
Segwit is required for a useful lightning network It's now known that without a malleability fix useful indefinite channels are not really possible.
https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/5tzqtc/gentle_reminder_the_ln_doesnt_require_segwit/ddqgda7/
https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/5tzqtc/gentle_reminder_the_ln_doesnt_require_segwit/ddqbukj/
https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/5x2oh0/olaoluwa_osuntokun_all_active_lightning_network/deeto14/?context=3
Clearing up SegWit Lies and Myths: https://achow101.com/2016/04/Segwit-FUD-Clearup
Segwit is bigger blocks https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/5pb8vs/misinformation_is_working_54_incorrectly_believe/dcpz3en/
Typical usage results in segwit allowing capacity equivalent to 2mb blocks https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/69i2md/observe_for_yourself_segwit_allows_2_mb_blocks_in/

Why is segwit being blocked

Jihan Wu (head of largest bitcoin mining group) is blocking segwit because of perceived loss of income https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/60mb9e/complete_high_quality_translation_of_jihans/
Witness discount creates aligned incentives https://segwit.org/why-a-discount-factor-of-4-why-not-2-or-8-bbcebe91721e#.h36odthq0 https://medium.com/@SegWit.co/what-is-behind-the-segwit-discount-988f29dc1edf#.sr91dg406
or because he wants his mining enterprise to have control over bitcoin https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/6jdyk8/direct_report_of_jihan_wus_real_reason_fo

Segwit is being blocked because it breaks ASICBOOST, a patented optimization used by bitmain ASIC manufacturer

Details and discovery by gmaxwell https://lists.linuxfoundation.org/pipermail/bitcoin-dev/2017-April/013996.html
Reddit thread with discussion https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/63otrp/gregory_maxwell_major_asic_manufacturer_is/
Simplified explaination by jonny1000 https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/64qq5g/attempted_explanation_of_the_alleged_asicboost/
http://www.mit.edu/~jlrubin/public/pdfs/Asicboost.pdf
https://medium.com/@jimmysong/examining-bitmains-claims-about-asicboost-1d61118c678d
Evidence https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/63yo27/some_circumstantial_evidence_supporting_the_claim/
https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/63vn5g/please_dont_stop_us_from_using_asicboost_which/dfxmm75/
https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/63soe3/reverse_engineering_an_asic_is_a_significant_task/dfx9nc
Bitmain admits their chips have asicboost but they say they never used it on the network (haha a likely story) https://blog.bitmain.com/en/regarding-recent-allegations-smear-campaigns/
Worth $100m per year to them (also in gmaxwell's original email) https://twitter.com/petertoddbtc/status/849798529929424898
Other calculations show less https://medium.com/@vcorem/the-real-savings-from-asicboost-to-bitmaintech-ff265c2d305b
This also blocks all these other cool updates, not just segwit https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/63otrp/gregory_maxwell_major_asic_manufacturer_is/dfw0ej3/
Summary of bad consequences of asicboost https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/64qq5g/attempted_explanation_of_the_alleged_asicboost/dg4hyqk/?context=1
Luke's summary of the entire situation https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/6ego3s/why_is_killing_asicboost_not_a_priority/diagkkb/?context=1
Prices goes up because now segwit looks more likely https://twitter.com/TuurDemeestestatus/849846845425799168
Asicboost discovery made the price rise https://twitter.com/TuurDemeestestatus/851520094677200901
A pool was caught red handed doing asicboost, by this time it seemed fairly certain that segwit would get activated so it didnt produce as much interest as earlier https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/6p7lr5/1hash_pool_has_mined_2_invalid_blocks/ and https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/6p95dl/interesting_1hash_pool_mined_some_invalid_blocks/ and https://twitter.com/petertoddbtc/status/889475196322811904
This btc user is outraged at the entire forum because they support Bitmain and ASICBOOST https://www.reddit.com/btc/comments/67t43y/dragons_den_planned_smear_campaign_of_bitmain/dgtg9l2/
Antbleed, turns out Bitmain can shut down all its ASICs by remote control: http://www.antbleed.com/

What if segwit never activates

What if segwit never activates? https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/6ab8js/transaction_fees_are_now_making_btc_like_the_banks/dhdq3id/ with https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/5ksu3o/blinded_bearer_certificates/ and https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/4xy0fm/scaling_quickly/

Lightning

bitcoinmagazine's series on what lightning is and how it works https://bitcoinmagazine.com/articles/understanding-the-lightning-network-part-building-a-bidirectional-payment-channel-1464710791/ https://bitcoinmagazine.com/articles/understanding-the-lightning-network-part-creating-the-network-1465326903/ https://bitcoinmagazine.com/articles/understanding-the-lightning-network-part-completing-the-puzzle-and-closing-the-channel-1466178980/
The Lightning Network ELIDHDICACS (Explain Like I Don’t Have Degrees in Cryptography and Computer Science) https://letstalkbitcoin.com/blog/post/the-lightning-network-elidhdicacs
Ligtning will increases fees for miners, not lower them https://medium.com/lightning-resources/the-lightning-paradox-f15ce0e8e374#.erfgunumh
Cost-benefit analysis of lightning from the point of view of miners https://medium.com/@rusty_lightning/miners-and-bitcoin-lightning-a133cd550310#.x42rovlg8
Routing blog post by rusty https://medium.com/@rusty_lightning/routing-dijkstra-bellman-ford-and-bfg-7715840f004 and reddit comments https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/4lzkz1/rusty_russell_on_lightning_routing_routing/
Lightning protocol rfc https://github.com/lightningnetwork/lightning-rfc
Blog post with screenshots of ln being used on testnet https://medium.com/@btc_coach/lightning-network-in-action-b18a035c955d video https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mxGiMu4V7ns
Video of sending and receiving ln on testnet https://twitter.com/alexbosworth/status/844030573131706368
Lightning tradeoffs http://www.coindesk.com/lightning-technical-challenges-bitcoin-scalability/
Beer sold for testnet lightning https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/62uw23/lightning_network_is_working_room77_is_accepting/ and https://twitter.com/MrHodl/status/848265171269283845
Lightning will result in far fewer coins being stored on third parties because it supports instant transactions https://medium.com/@thecryptoconomy/the-barely-discussed-incredible-benefit-of-the-lightning-network-4ce82c75eb58
jgarzik argues strongly against LN, he owns a coin tracking startup https://twitter.com/petertoddbtc/status/860826532650123264 https://twitter.com/Beautyon_/status/886128801926795264
luke's great debunking / answer of some misinformation questions https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/6st4eq/questions_about_lightning_network/dlfap0u/
Lightning centralization doesnt happen https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/6vzau5/reminder_bitcoins_key_strength_is_in_being/dm4ou3v/?context=1
roasbeef on hubs and charging fees https://twitter.com/roasbeef/status/930209165728825344 and https://twitter.com/roasbeef/status/930210145790976000

Immutability / Being a swiss bank in your pocket / Why doing a hard fork (especially without consensus) is damaging

A downside of hard forks is damaging bitcoin's immutability https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/5em6vu/what_happens_if_segwit_doesnt_activate/dae1r6c/?context=3
Interesting analysis of miners incentives and how failure is possible, don't trust the miners for long term https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/5gtew4/why_an_increased_block_size_increases_the_cost_of/daybazj/?context=2
waxwing on the meaning of cash and settlement https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/5ei7m3/unconfirmed_transactions_60k_total_fees_14btc/dad001v/
maaku on the cash question https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/5i5iq5/we_are_spoiled/db5luiv/?context=1
Digital gold funamentalists gain nothing from supporting a hard fork to larger block sizes https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/5xzunq/core_please_compromise_before_we_end_up_with_bu/dem73xg/?context=1
Those asking for a compromise don't understand the underlying political forces https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/6ef7wb/some_comments_on_the_bip148_uasf_from_the/dia236b/?context=3
Nobody wants a contentious hard fork actually, anti-core people got emotionally manipulated https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/5sq5ocontentious_forks_vs_incremental_progress/ddip57o/
The hard work of the core developers has kept bitcoin scalable https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/3hfgpo/an_initiative_to_bring_advanced_privacy_features/cu7mhw8?context=9
Recent PRs to improve bitcoin scaleability ignored by the debate https://twitter.com/jfnewbery/status/883001356168167425
gmaxwell against hard forks since 2013 https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=140233.20
maaku: hard forks are really bad https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/5zxjza/adam_greg_core_devs_and_big_blockers_now_is_the/df275yk/?context=2

Some metrics on what the market thinks of decentralization and hostile hard forks

The price history shows that the exchange rate drops every time a hard fork threatens: https://i.imgur.com/EVPYLR8.jpg
and this example from 2017 https://twitter.com/WhalePanda/status/845562763820912642
http://imgur.com/a/DuHAn btc users lose money
price supporting theymos' moderation https://i.imgur.com/0jZdF9h.png
old version https://i.imgur.com/BFTxTJl.png
older version https://pbs.twimg.com/media/CxqtUakUQAEmC0d.jpg
about 50% of nodes updated to the soft fork node quite quickly https://imgur.com/O0xboVI

Bitcoin Unlimited / Emergent Consensus is badly designed, changes the game theory of bitcoin

Bitcoin Unlimited was a proposed hard fork client, it was made with the intention to stop segwit from activating
A Future Led by Bitcoin Unlimited is a Centralized Future https://blog.sia.tech/a-future-led-by-bitcoin-unlimited-is-a-centralized-future-e48ab52c817a#.p1ly6hldk
Flexible transactions are bugged https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/57tf5g/bitcoindev_bluematt_on_flexible_transactions/
Bugged BU software mines an invalid block, wasting 13 bitcoins or $12k
https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/5qwtr2/bitcoincom_loses_132btc_trying_to_fork_the/
https://www.reddit.com/btc/comments/5qx18i/bitcoincom_loses_132btc_trying_to_fork_the/
bitcoin.com employees are moderators of btc https://medium.com/@WhalePanda/the-curious-relation-between-bitcoin-com-anti-segwit-propaganda-26c877249976#.vl02566k4
miners don't control stuff like the block size http://hackingdistributed.com/2016/01/03/time-for-bitcoin-user-voice/
even gavin agreed that economic majority controls things https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/5ywoi9/in_2010_gavin_predicted_that_exchanges_ie_the/
fork clients are trying to steal bitcoin's brand and network effect, theyre no different from altcoins https://medium.com/@Coinosphere/why-bitcoin-unlimited-should-be-correctly-classified-as-an-attempted-robbery-of-bitcoin-not-a-9355d075763c#.qeaynlx5m
BU being active makes it easier to reverse payments, increases wasted work making the network less secure and giving an advantage to bigger miners https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/5g1x84/bitcoin_unlimited_bu_median_value_of_miner_eb/
bitcoin unlimited takes power away from users and gives it to miners https://medium.com/@alpalpalp/bitcoin-unlimiteds-placebo-controls-6320cbc137d4#.q0dv15gd5
bitcoin unlimited's accepted depth https://twitter.com/tdryja/status/804770009272696832
BU's lying propaganda poster https://imgur.com/osrViDE

BU is bugged, poorly-reviewed and crashes

bitcoin unlimited allegedly funded by kraken stolen coins
https://www.reddit.com/btc/comments/55ajuh/taint_analysis_on_bitcoin_stolen_from_kraken_on/
https://www.reddit.com/btc/comments/559miz/taint_analysis_on_btc_allegedly_stolen_from_kraken/
Other funding stuff
https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/5zozmn/damning_evidence_on_how_bitcoin_unlimited_pays/
A serious bug in BU https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/5h70s3/bitcoin_unlimited_bu_the_developers_have_realized/
A summary of what's wrong with BU: https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/5z3wg2/jihanwu_we_will_switch_the_entire_pool_to/devak98/

Bitcoin Unlimited Remote Exploit Crash 14/3/2017

https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/5zdkv3/bitcoin_unlimited_remote_exploit_crash/ https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/5zeb76/timbe https://www.reddit.com/btc/comments/5zdrru/peter_todd_bu_remote_crash_dos_wtf_bug_assert0_in/
BU devs calling it as disaster https://twitter.com/SooMartindale/status/841758265188966401 also btc deleted a thread about the exploit https://i.imgur.com/lVvFRqN.png
Summary of incident https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/5zf97j/i_was_undecided_now_im_not/
More than 20 exchanges will list BTU as an altcoin
https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/5zyg6g/bitcoin_exchanges_unveil_emergency_hard_fork/
Again a few days later https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/60qmkt/bu_is_taking_another_shit_timberrrrr

User Activated Soft Fork (UASF)

site for it, including list of businesses supporting it http://www.uasf.co/
luke's view
https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/5zsk45/i_am_shaolinfry_author_of_the_recent_usedf1dqen/?context=3
threat of UASF makes the miner fall into line in litecoin
https://www.reddit.com/litecoin/comments/66omhlitecoin_global_roundtable_resolution/dgk2thk/?context=3
UASF delivers the goods for vertcoin
https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/692mi3/in_test_case_uasf_results_in_miner_consensus/dh3cm34/?context=1
UASF coin is more valuable https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/6cgv44/a_uasf_chain_will_be_profoundly_more_valuable/
All the links together in one place https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/6dzpew/hi_its_mkwia_again_maintainer_of_uasfbitcoin_on/
p2sh was a uasf https://github.com/bitcoin/bitcoin/blob/v0.6.0/src/main.cpp#L1281-L1283
jgarzik annoyed at the strict timeline that segwit2x has to follow because of bip148 https://twitter.com/jgarzik/status/886605836902162432
Committed intolerant minority https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/6d7dyt/a_plea_for_rational_intolerance_extremism_and/
alp on the game theory of the intolerant minority https://medium.com/@alpalpalp/user-activated-soft-forks-and-the-intolerant-minority-a54e57869f57
The risk of UASF is less than the cost of doing nothing https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/6bof7a/were_getting_to_the_point_where_a_the_cost_of_not/
uasf delivered the goods for bitcoin, it forced antpool and others to signal (May 2016) https://bitcoinmagazine.com/articles/antpool-will-not-run-segwit-without-block-size-increase-hard-fork-1464028753/ "When asked specifically whether Antpool would run SegWit code without a hard fork increase in the block size also included in a release of Bitcoin Core, Wu responded: “No. It is acceptable that the hard fork code is not activated, but it needs to be included in a ‘release’ of Bitcoin Core. I have made it clear about the definition of ‘release,’ which is not ‘public.’”"
Screenshot of peter rizun capitulating https://twitter.com/chris_belcher_/status/905231603991007232

Fighting off 2x HF

https://twitter.com/MrHodl/status/895089909723049984
https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/6h612o/can_someone_explain_to_me_why_core_wont_endorse/?st=j6ic5n17&sh=cc37ee23
https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/6smezz/segwit2x_hard_fork_is_completely_useless_its_a/?st=j6ic2aw3&sh=371418dd
https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/6sbspv/who_exactly_is_segwit2x_catering_for_now_segwit/?st=j6ic5nic&sh=1f86cadd
https://medium.com/@elliotolds/lesser-known-reasons-to-keep-blocks-small-in-the-words-of-bitcoin-core-developers-44861968185e
b2x is most of all about firing core https://twitter.com/WhalePanda/status/912664487135760384
https://medium.com/@StopAndDecrypt/thats-not-bitcoin-this-is-bitcoin-95f05a6fd6c2

Misinformation / sockpuppets

https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/6uqz6k/markets_update_bitcoin_cash_rallies_for_three/dlurbpx/
three year old account, only started posting today https://archive.is/3STjH
Why we should not hard fork after the UASF worked: https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/6sl1qf/heres_why_we_should_not_hard_fork_in_a_few_months/

History

Good article that covers virtually all the important history https://bitcoinmagazine.com/articles/long-road-segwit-how-bitcoins-biggest-protocol-upgrade-became-reality/
Interesting post with some history pre-2015 https://btcmanager.com/the-long-history-of-the-fight-over-scaling-bitcoin/
The core scalabality roadmap + my summary from 3/2017 https://lists.linuxfoundation.org/pipermail/bitcoin-dev/2015-Decembe011865.html my summary https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/5xa5fa/the_core_development_scalability_roadmap/
History from summer 2015 https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/5xg7f8/the_origins_of_the_blocksize_debate/
Brief reminders of the ETC situation https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/6nvlgo/simple_breakdown_of_bip91_its_simply_the_miners/dkcycrz/
Longer writeup of ethereum's TheDAO bailout fraud https://www.reddit.com/ethereumfraud/comments/6bgvqv/faq_what_exactly_is_the_fraud_in_ethereum/
Point that the bigblocker side is only blocking segwit as a hostage https://www.reddit.com/BitcoinMarkets/comments/5sqhcq/daily_discussion_wednesday_february_08_2017/ddi3ctv/?context=3
jonny1000's recall of the history of bitcoin https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/6s34gg/rbtc_spreading_misinformation_in_rbitcoinmarkets/dl9wkfx/

Misc (mostly memes)

libbitcoin's Understanding Bitcoin series (another must read) https://github.com/libbitcoin/libbitcoin/wiki/Understanding-Bitcoin
github commit where satoshi added the block size limit https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/63859l/github_commit_where_satoshi_added_the_block_size/
hard fork proposals from some core devs https://bitcoinhardforkresearch.github.io/
blockstream hasnt taken over the entire bitcoin core project https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/622bjp/bitcoin_core_blockstream/
blockstream is one of the good guys https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/6cttkh/its_happening_blockstream_opens_liquid_sidechain/dhxu4e
Forkers, we're not raising a single byte! Song lyrics by belcher https://gist.github.com/chris-belche7264cd6750a86f8b4a9a
Some stuff here along with that cool photoshopped poster https://medium.com/@jimmysong/bitcoin-realism-or-how-i-learned-to-stop-worrying-and-love-1mb-blocks-c191c35e74cb
Nice graphic https://twitter.com/RNR_0/status/871070843698380800
gmaxwell saying how he is probably responsible for the most privacy tech in bitcoin, while mike hearn screwed up privacy https://www.reddit.com/btc/comments/6azyme/hey_bu_wheres_your_testnet/dhiq3xo/?context=6
Fairly cool propaganda poster https://twitter.com/urbanarson/status/880476631583924225
btc tankman https://i.redd.it/gxjqenzpr27z.png https://twitter.com/DanDarkPill/status/853653168151986177
asicboost discovery meme https://twitter.com/allenscottoshi/status/849888189124947971
https://twitter.com/urbanarson/status/882020516521013250
gavin wanted to kill the bitcoin chain https://twitter.com/allenscottoshi/status/849888189124947971
stuff that btc believes https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/6ld4a5/serious_is_the_rbtc_and_the_bu_crowd_a_joke_how/djszsqu/
after segwit2x NYA got agreed all the fee pressure disappeared, laurenmt found they were artificial spam https://twitter.com/i/moments/885827802775396352
theymos saying why victory isnt inevitable https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/6lmpll/explaining_why_big_blocks_are_bad/djvxv2o/
with ignorant enemies like these its no wonder we won https://bitco.in/forum/threads/gold-collapsing-bitcoin-up.16/page-999 ""So, once segwit2x activates, from that moment on it will require a coordinated fork to avoid the up coming "baked in" HF. ""
a positive effect of bcash, it made blockchain utxo spammers move away from bitcoin https://www.reddit.com/btc/comments/76lv0b/cryptograffitiinfo_now_accepts_bitcoin_cash/dof38gw/
summary of craig wright, jihan wu and roger ver's positions https://medium.com/@HjalmarPeters/the-big-blockers-bead6027deb2
Why is bitcoin so strong against attack?!?! (because we're motivated and awesome) https://www.reddit.com/btc/comments/64wo1h/bitcoin_unlimited_is_being_blocked_by_antivirus/dg5n00x/
what happened to #oldjeffgarzik https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/6ufv5x/a_reminder_of_some_of_jeff_garziks_greatest/
big blockers fully deserve to lose every last bitcoin they ever had and more https://www.reddit.com/BitcoinMarkets/comments/756nxf/daily_discussion_monday_october_09_2017/do5ihqi/
gavinandresen brainstorming how to kill bitcoin with a 51% in a nasty way https://twitter.com/btcdrak/status/843914877542567937
Roger Ver as bitcoin Judas https://imgur.com/a/Rf1Pi
A bunch of tweets and memes celebrating UASF
https://twitter.com/shaolinfry/status/842457019286188032 | https://twitter.com/SatoshiLite/status/888335092560441345 | https://twitter.com/btcArtGallery/status/887485162925285377 | https://twitter.com/Beautyon_/status/888109901611802624 | https://twitter.com/Excellion/status/889211512966873088 | https://twitter.com/lopp/status/888200452197801984 | https://twitter.com/AlpacaSW/status/886988980524396544 | https://twitter.com/BashCo_/status/877253729531162624 | https://twitter.com/tdryja/status/865212300361379840 | https://twitter.com/Excellion/status/871179040157179904 | https://twitter.com/TraceMayestatus/849856343074902016 | https://twitter.com/TraceMayestatus/841855022640033792 | https://fs.bitcoinmagazine.com/img/images/Screen_Shot_2017-08-18_at_01.36.47.original.png
submitted by belcher_ to UASF [link] [comments]

Thinking about new BIP - Segregate Everything

submitted by parallel7 to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

[Informational] [CC0] Forks In Simple Terms

Forks

Hard Fork

Any change to the Bitcoin protocol that means the existing nodes would reject blocks and transactions as invalid is called a hard forking change.
Since the Bitcoin protocol is strict about setting limits in a wide variety of areas, most notably the coin limit and block size limit, there are a wide number of changes that may appear to be simple, but from from a protocol perspective are equivalent to completely changing the entire system.
Not all clients of the Bitcoin protocol work the same way. It's possible to change the limits, and so for some types of clients, a hard fork would not be a hard fork at all. Because this is confusing, generally only the broad consensus of the Bitcoin rules is considered when referring to a hard fork.

Proposed Hard Forks

It's generally understood that should there be an obvious issue or critical problem with the Blockchain, any issue including a deliberate attack on the network, this problem can be solved with a rapid, dynamically chosen or custom developed hard fork.
Satoshi Nakamoto once proposed that in the future a possible hard fork to increase the block size limit be implemented by using a far future flag day, a day after which the old ruleset is no longer used and a new ruleset is switched to.
One Bitcoin protocol change that has been long discussed is the reversal of how Bitcoin transactions are confirmed. In the existing protocol, miners sweep unconfirmed transactions into their blocks. In a theorized change, miners would win a temporary period of time in which they could simply directly add transactions to the Blockchain.
Every Bitcoin can be subdivided into one hundred million Satoshis, however this may not always be enough. A hard fork could increase the divisibility without increasing the coin limit, should the value of a Satoshi grow by enough to justify the change.

Accidental Hard Forks

Sometimes a hard fork happens in an unplanned way, where miners simply make invalid blocks for accidental reasons.
In July of 2015, this happened on two separate occasions. The first fork produced a series of six invalid blocks, starting with an invalid block from the small mining pool BTC Nuggets, and then followed by a series of five blocks produced by the Chinese mining pools AntPool and F2Pool. The next day, a similar fork occurred, initiated by a block created by the miner MegaBigPower. The block was followed by two invalid blocks created by unknown miners.
The reason for this fork is that from the point of view of the network, some miners attempted to reverse the rules set up in the BIP 66 soft fork upgrade. This split the network into two: Bitcoin nodes that used the consensus rule set defined in Bitcoin version 0.9.4 and Bitcoin nodes that used the consensus rule set defined in Bitcoin version 0.9.5.

Soft Fork

Any change to the Bitcoin protocol's consensus rules that is more restrictive than the existing set of rules is called a soft fork. Generally soft forks are considered backwards-compatible because nodes on both sides of the consensus fork may remain interoperable. The standard rollout of a soft fork involves a majority of mining hashing power updating node software to only mine transactions that comply with soft fork rules, and deliberately avoid building on blocks who do not do the same.
Reversing a soft fork would be changing the limits to something that existing nodes would reject, and is thus a hard fork. The hard fork would be from the point of view of the updated nodes only, older nodes would not notice the reversal. This means that even a majority of miners enforcing a soft fork at one point in time do not provide an assurance that the soft fork will remain or be constantly enforced. The assurance derives from the rest of the network's acceptance of the soft fork code, which provides the hard fork cost to the miner of rolling back the soft fork.
Soft fork rollbacks may be accidental, shepherding the miners and the network to a new set of consensus rules can be a perilous process and has led to multiple historical accidents. To safeguard against this, steps have been taken to encourage miners to accurately signal their soft fork consensus rules in BIP 9, and the common process for miners coming to agreement on a soft fork is to signal for three to four weeks that the soft fork has at least ninety-five percent consensus and will be enforced permanently. A soft fork increases the risk to an out of date node that they will no longer be following consensus, so they are encouraged to either update their node to the soft fork or reduce their payment receipt risk by waiting for more confirmations.

Adding Features

The primary method of adding major features to the Bitcoin protocol is to use a soft fork to enforce new rules about a transaction. For example: adding a new transaction type that appeared to spend funds that anyone might be able to spend but also included a script that others would validate as only being spendable under arbitrary conditions. This transaction would pass muster both to nodes that could not validate the new unknown conditions and to nodes that could validate the script's additional requirements. In this way, miners introduce new spending types by enforcing new rules on apparently less-restricted transactions.
In the case of the P2SH soft fork which enabled new transaction types such as multi signature transactions, the signature requirement to spend funds locked in a P2SH address simply changed to be more restrictive. Before P2SH, anyone could spend funds sent to an output script that matched the pattern OP_HASH160 $value OP_EQUAL as long as they provided an input that matched the hash value. After P2SH only the value that matched a working script could be used to spend funds.
Many transaction operation codes or opcodes have been with Bitcoin since the early days of the protocol. This set of codes also includes codes that do nothing and always validate, so that in the future they may be used to include new features as they are conceived and agreed upon, without the need to hard fork.
submitted by pb1x to writingforbitcoin [link] [comments]

Coin Sender V2 ✅ Released 06/2020  HaCk Unconfirmed Transaction Funds!!✅  Software Working Fake Bitcoin Transaction , Fake Bitcoin Transaction Software Blockchain explained, unconfirmed Transaction hack, Earn 7.4 BTC per day Bitcoin Fees and Unconfirmed Transactions - Complete ... LEDGER NANO S  What To Do If Your Bitcoin Transaction Gets Unconfirmed / Stuck

Did you know you can verify any unconfirmed Bitcoin transaction with our Bitcoin Block Explorer tool?Simply complete a Bitcoin address search to view it on the blockchain. It is not possible to reverse a transaction that has already been transmitted on the bitcoin network. However if you can keep a transaction from being transmitted then you can close the client restore the wallet file from a backup. When the client is restored with the -rescan flag the transaction will no longer be pending. 5BTC - 10mins hacked Script Blockchain unconfirmed bitcoin transactions video duration 3 Minute(s) 5 Second(s), published by Amy's LearnEarn on 07 02 2019 - 03:15:46. Download Script : https://1ink.live/tznWy Create a Blockchain Account : https://1ink.live/FrVu8 How to use BlockChain TX Script: 1 Create New Account on bitcoin #paywithbitcoin #buywithbitcoin #btc #hodl This is my first time ... Disclosure: This content is reader supported. Your support helps me to keep this site running! When you click any link to some services, or products recommended here, i’ll earn comission […] Dealing with Bitcoin transaction confirmation shouldn’t be all technical if you know how to handle it. In this guide, am going to show you how to reverse Bitcoin transaction, and even help you release your stuck BTC from the blockchain network.. Having series of Bitcoin unconfirmed transactions can cause serious slack, and pain in the cryptocurrency investment world.

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Coin Sender V2 ✅ Released 06/2020 HaCk Unconfirmed Transaction Funds!!✅ Software Working

how to reverse unconfirmed bitcoin transaction. Category People & Blogs; Show more Show less. Loading... Autoplay When autoplay is enabled, a suggested video will automatically play next. Up next ... A transaction with low fees can stay unconfirmed up to 80hrs. After that it will either reverse back to the sender or finally made it to the destination. There is nothing one can do to speed it up ... Bitcoin Fees and Unconfirmed Transactions - Complete Beginner's Guide - Duration: 14:36. 99Bitcoins 18,284 views. 14:36. Handcrafted S1 • E1 How To Butcher An Entire Cow: Every Cut Of Meat ... the richest bitcoin software online in youtube- earn up to $437,085.88 worth 59.3 btc😲😵 - duration: 23:48. free bitcoin android miner Recommended for you 23:48 It's Software "APK" To Send Unlimited Fake Bitcoin Transactions, And Those Fake Bitcoin Transactions It Will Never Get Any Confirmations, Work On Android Phone only, Download Link For The Software ...

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