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If everyone should run full nodes then why POW?

Preamble: I always post my viewpoint on a sub with an opposing standpoint for the sole reason that the best way to learn is from critique and thus my choice of posting here. Please don’t confuse rebuttals with trolling, it's often just often just a misunderstanding on either or both party’s side. Please refrain from pointing out people or altcoins and evaluate premises on their own merits. Also please consider a comment before down voting.
So, as might be deduced I am against the notion that everyone should run a full node and that instead miners can be ‘trusted’ (due to economic incentives) to provide an honest chain on the one with most proof of work and that SPV is good enough for 99% of users. Hopefully the hypothetical scenario following will help to further (or weaken) my case and understanding. Note that this was a shower thought and might be crushed with a single comment (which will be good and what I’m here for).
Introducing Bitcoin with zero greenhouse gas emissions and improved security consensus rules:
Consider these hypothetical changes to Bitcoin’s consensus rules for a hypothetical upgrade to full nodes (note again this is very quick thoughts so over time this could be improved significantly).
So here we have a new and improved Bitcoin that is environmentally friendly and significantly more secure due to the fact that you can compound security by taking a hash that is buried under sChain's POW for as far back as you wish.
Looking forward to those spotting flaws in my preliminary thoughts on this (I am expecting a lot to be honest).
So in the hypothetical scenario that this POW leaching consensus model holds (after this initial suggestion is optimised to as good as it can be) then do we not have to rethink this every node should be validating all transactions idea?
EDIT: After some discussion I want to make some revisions (mainly to remove any POS'ish incentives the initial description might have created)... 1) There will be no rewards whatsoever for creating blocks 2) The block producers are chosen randomly from UTXO set based on sChain's block hashes
submitted by fiddley2000 to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

An in depth look into Sparkster and why I believe it is in a league of its own

Introduction
Today I am writing about a project I truly believe in. I am on the same page with Ian Balina when I state that I see this project is an all-star ICO. This is not your average run-of-the-mill vapour ware ICO with No MVP. This is a working platform with a great team behind it. You can find AMA’s on YouTube(Link 1)with live demonstrations of their TPS progress to date and you can also try out their platform for yourself on their website, these are linked at the end of the article for your convenience. Also, they have a pretty good bounty programme running at the moment which I shall link also(Link 2).
Please don’t consider this investment advice, I hope you will read this article and consider it a starting point for your own research. At the time of writing the market has taken another nasty dip, however this is the time when smart investments need to be made, And I truly fell this is one of them. I would also like any of you who enjoy this article to please upvote it and check out my previous work and stay tuned for more.
I will be diving deep into this whitepaper (Link 3) today and basing my article off videos and my personal experience on their platform. All this information can be found within their website and whitepaper. As such I imagine this is going to be a long article.
So, to begin Sparkster is essentially a decentralised cloud platform that will allow anybody to build software in plain English via simple drag and drop function. In their whitepaper they confess that this was inspired by MIT scratch. In today’s world programmers work in various kinds of code languages, these all require training in different types of languages. For example solidity is one of the most popular used today which “is a contract-oriented programming language for writing smart contracts” (Wikipedia, 2018). This is currently used on many blockchain platforms, it was developed by Ethereum’s project solidity team for use on the Ethereum virtual machine and is the most popular language used at present.
Sparkster aims to provide a platform which will allow smart contracts to run at 10 million TPS per second, which would make it the fastest decentralised cloud software in the world.
Concept development
In their whitepaper they suggest this project was conceived after spending 14 years working with software engineers designing and building ERP software for a start-up. Sparkster was born from the frustration of this process and after 6 years of R&D they have the working product we see today. This is an enterprise ready platform. They also claim they have already signed deals with large tech companies (ARM & Libelium).
They also talk about how the entry is trying to make things more practical but it is not far enough. Sparkster are the market leaders here as they are targeting an audience of 99% non-software developers and allowing them to build software. Interestingly in 2018 at the mobile world congress they presented the use of this platform using AI facial recognition to detect a cleaner in a house and opening a door lock, I seen this on YouTube video, which I will link below(Link 4). This is a team which have proved they have a working product.
Claims/ Vision
  1. In their whitepaper they claim they want to become the world’s first platform where people can build their own visions into reality and create financial independence for themselves and contribute to society.
  2. Sparkster will tear apart the barrier to entry to software creation. Their drag and drop functionality on the platform allows this. Up until yesterday I had no clue how a smart contract worked at the basic level, now I consider myself an expert software developer- Who would have thought I could throw away my old life and upskill over 24 hours? Ha.
  3. What I also love about this project is that it will empower people to bring their own ideas to the table and be able to sell them, thus creating financial independence.
  4. The Sparkster, (2018) website(Link 5)suggests they will further disrupt the 200 billion cloud computing industry and combat the extortionate prices large centralised cloud provides like AWS, Microsoft, Google and IBM charge.
  5. This is a finished product guys, please try it yourself if you don’t believe me.
Problem today
As per Sparkster, (2018) claim the biggest problem faced today is that organisations and individuals who wish to implement AI, IOT and smart contract technology have limitations placed on them. Most notably being that their own IT departments are adapting too slowly and there is a serious lack of experienced personnel in these areas. When I watched the AMA that Sajjad Daya (CEO) did with IAN Balina, he described that it is hard to interpret what you want to a developer and get the result you require; the end result then often does not meet your expectations. This of course leads to time wasting as it requires much back and forth correspondence. He stated that this can be months down the line (Something I have experienced in my own organisation). This traditional “software development lifecycle” is truly a slow and painful process, just as they claim in their whitepaper. Also, when changes need to be made to the software down the line it is very expensive.
Further-more the team claim that most business software used today (SAP, Oracle, Microsoft etc… is in-capable of interfacing with the technologies of the future (IOT, AI, Smart contracts). The Sparkster whitepaper further goes on to suggest that the talent is just not there in the industry today to face this challenge either and much up-skilling is required. The team believe that the high capital cost and time periods to replicate vision onto software in the traditional manner is the biggest problem facing enterprises today as it curbs innovation. I concur with this sentiment.
How they will achieve/solve this
According to their whitepaper, this platform is the solution to all of the above problems. It is a Platform which targets the new era of AI, IOT and smart contracts and all tailored to non-developesoftware experts “making is accessible to the 99% who do not know how to code and don’t want to learn” (Sparkster, 2018).
They will create this platform by targeting users of cell phones, notebooks, laptops and other personal devices- who in essence will all become miners on the network. This will then in turn provide users with Spark tokens as a reward for contributing spare capacity. Using these devices is far cheaper than todays centralised systems according to the team. They further proclaim in their whitepaper this lower cost will arise from using inexpensive nodes and as this scales the cost goes down; compared to traditional cloud computing which remains constant. Companies will provide the value via paying for the software creation.
Fees
To scale the platform, they will make personal use free, but limited to a certain number of transactions per month. This restriction can be lifted by referring others. The commercial use will be via ongoing fees (licences, transaction fees, storage fees etc...). The team also describe how the platform and cloud are complimentary, which will allow users to build software 100x faster and cheaper than traditional means, so this will be a very popular mass blockchain adoption platform in my view.
Their plan for growth
A marketplace will essentially become available when users sell their software creations via peer to peer transactions. So, value really depends on how users use the platform. Also, users lending their free memory (CPU) on phones etc… will be awarded spark tokens. These can all be used to negate the fees paid.
According to their whitepaper they will also focus on strategic partnership. As mentioned above they have already partnerships with ARM (World’s largest computer chip designer) and Libellium (Industrial sensor and gateway distributor). They also plan to target vertical markets, specifically IOT and smart contracts as growth is forecast to be huge in both. I personally see the use of smart contracts in society as the single biggest use case of blockchain in the future.
Platform
What is amazing about this platform is that you can actually try it for yourself on their website. I conducted the 6 walkarounds myself and was very impressed by what I experienced. I have never attempted to try create anything with software, but the process was made so simple by Sparkster. You can literally drag and drop different interfaces together and define the behaviour of each block. It’s a very simple and intuitive approach to building smart contracts. As described by Sparkster, (2018) whitepaper you just snap together blocks that describe the “what” you want without worry about “how” it works, they even attribute it to building with Lego. The walkthroughs bring you through how to create a simple calculator and by the 6th lesson you have developed a complex insurance smart contract from which premiums can be calculated and payments automatically made.
Sparkster claim that this will make the creation of smart contracts 100 times faster and cheaper than traditional software development, a claim which I am starting to believe after experience their walkthrough. This is a rare project which already has a working platform- Why wouldn’t you be impressed?
Most ICO’s today are nothing but vapourware, who look for you money and don’t even have minimum viable projects to offer. I would advise you all to look at their AMA’s on YouTube and partake in their walkthroughs and you will see for yourself.
A more detailed look into their platform
According to Sparkster, (2018) their smart software is made up of:
  1. Flows- The definition of the software, made up of all core components of the platform.
  2. Functions- Single building blocks that perform units of work which can be plugged together to build processes (e.g. an insurance policy as seen in their walkthrough video). The have a well-defined user interface also.
  3. Documents- Basic data storage entities on the platform, they differ from functions as they are there to retrieve, persist, update and delete data. Sparkster say that they are there to represent an entity in the real world e.g. a user’s car insurance policy. Furthermore, storage nodes on the cloud will be rewarded for this storage and retrieval of data.
  4. Integrations- This is the interface to the outside world. Sparkster say they provide a simple abstraction to a 3rd party API or webservices. What I like about this is that somebody can create this (e.g. shipping quotation) and allow others to use after its created via the market place. Sparkster aim to allow people to do this without worrying how it all works.
  5. Devices- These replicate devices in the real world comprising of commands and fields (Bidirectional data transfer). In their whitepaper they use an example of a temperature probe in a greenhouse where the temperature feeds back to the action field. It is very complex stuff.
  6. Gateways- these represent a group of devices connected to one gateway. Sparkster say these are all connected to the internet allowing the platform interact with them all individually or as a group.
  7. Smart Contracts- This is the element I found most fascinating during the Sparkster walkthrough videos. This allows you to create smart contracts to allow transactions on the platform. Currently they are using Ethereum smart contracts and Iota smart transactions. I found the whole process so easy. They further state that all the above components can interact with the smart contracts, which was proven to me in the walkarounds.
Their claim of 10 million TPS
From what I can understand from their whitepaper and from an AMA with their CEO this will be a step by step approach to 10 million tps, admittedly a few years down the line but they already proved their platform works and is running at over 50k TPS with 50 cells. They don’t seem to have hit any scalability issues just yet. And I should not need to remind you that 50k TPS is much more than other blockchains products out there.
In their whitepaper they tell us that this is designed to be a specialised blockchain for the use of “smart software”, What is important to understand is that they can reach higher TPS because they don’t have to “act” like other blockchains, in that most of their clients will want to keep data private which “eliminates the necessity of maintaining global state” (Sparkster, 2018). This in turns allows them to shard their distributed hash tables into client groups, where “one shard never needs to have any awareness of another other shard” (Sparkster, 2018). They will essentially isolate cells from one another in order to scale to this level. They give a great example in their whitepaper where if a company like Air BNB want to put customer data into cells (usernames broke into separate letters per cell), where millions of customers make up their base.
Overall their theory is that there is technically no limit to the number of TPS they can achieve, this is just a target number. I have full confidence they can pull it off, what other blockchain is proving this live on air like this team is?
Decentralised cloud
Sparkster, (2018) website describes how traditional cloud providers such as Amazon, Microsoft and Google have huge costs, relating to server costs, backup power, staff, security and cooling. Decentralised cloud computing will be the death of these organisations. For instance, Sparkster claim that by executing small software components on one’s mobile phone these costs fall near to zero, they envisage a world where a lot of these miners will join the decentralised cloud and make reduce the costs further.
Their cloud will facilitate the execution of smart software created on the platform. Their whitepaper further suggests that one can simply download the Sparkster mining app on their phones which will provide user generated smart software environment (SRE). Companies will stake bids on the exchange for their software to run in a decentralised fashion and stake Spark tokens (Amount willing to pay). The team are envisaging this as a free market where bidders can stake as much as they like and miners ask for anything they like. Payment is made to the miners via these tokens.
They further say computer and storage nodes can join the network and be paid in Spark tokens, but they are required to stake tokens themselves as collateral to ensure they operate honestly. Sparkster will have verification nodes to validate transactions from computer and storage nodes and if any “bad behaviour” is found then they take these staked tokens in the form of a “bounty”. In my opinion this will make it a very secure platform
Sparkster Technology Stack
The below image from their whitepaper shows the levels “smart software” goes through to facilitate decentralised cloud computing.
https://preview.redd.it/4qnqlgowyf311.png?width=357&format=png&auto=webp&s=fa68bc369d37c14073dcbd4869518f3b1485c057
Source: Sparkster, (2018)
Throughput
What is very interesting is the high throughput they can sustain with such a high TPS. If you know anything about blockchain you will understand this is a challenge for every blockchain, the more users to a platform the more scaling is required. For instance, in the bull run in December I remember how slow the Ethereum blockchain became, this was also attributed to the increase in ICOs and DApps launching on the platform.
Sparkster claim their cloud is capable of “scaling linearly without any overhead curtailing its meteoric performance” (Sparkster, 2018). They can achieve this by isolating cells within the chain. They further claim that the whole Idea is to “isolate” chains, essentially creating independent blockchains which have their own hash tables and never synchronize with each other- they describe this like a human cell, which once splits never shares anything with another cell. It is a very simple concept, user’s data is stored in a specific cell, so why would another unrelated company using the Sparkster platform need to know about of access the information in the 1st cell. Each “cell” is capable of 1000tps and because they each have their own hash table this results in 2k tps and so on and so forth.
Essentially data is streamed in parallel but synching is never needed. This is huge- this is a platform which unlike any other blockchain is designed for mainstream adoption. Any company can use it and store data and be sure of a high throughput. As mentioned above they are already at 50k TPS- which is far better than most blockchains today. This is a true working product and I can see this getting to 10 million.
Consensus
Time for a quick history lesson, bitcoin uses proof of work and Ethereum use proof of stake. These are two most common consensuses used today by blockchains. Bitcoin relies on the party with the highest hashing power whereas Ethereum on the party with the highest amount of money. This team has chosen to implement the Steller Consensus Protocol (SCP), because it is better.
Sparkster describe this as a commercial version of the Federate Byzantine Agreement System (FBAS) (1000tps per second). They will also implement a layer for incentives to keep parties honest and minimise risk of attack as SCP does not have this. This will be done by awarding of Spark tokens to computer (donate CPU memory on device) and storage nodes (contribute storage space and network bandwidth). Clients of the platform will be covering these incentives. The team believe this extra layer is required to ensure the platform surpasses traditional cloud platforms and I tend to agree with them.
Their whitepaper further suggests that a proof of work consensus will be used to calculate these incentives. This will allow misbehaviour to be detected and stakes taken from them by verification nodes. Page 35-39 of the whitepaper goes into detail how these are all calculated, which is linked below for your interest.
Consistent hashing
As they don’t use global state this algorithm allows the platform to “hash the clients ID and extract a bounded number” (Sparkster, 2018). This will identify a particular client within a cell.
Privacy
One of the biggest fears of any data platform is privacy protection. The Sparkster team say that their cloud deconstructs data into fragments, encrypts them and disseminates them across the network of nodes. This is particularly important now with the EU’s general Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), as discussed in their whitepaper. So, any hack to the platform will wield meaningless returns. They also claim they use “zk-SNARKs… a zero-knowledge proof to ensure that client data is obfuscated, even from other network participants” (Sparkster, 2018).
Security
They also claim they can detect software intrusions such as tampering with the code, memory or thread. Once their system detects this all client data is automatically deleted from the memory along with the access keys to the Sparkster network, as claimed on their website.
In their whitepaper they also claim that any software built on the platform is “entirely bug free”. This is true because even though you as the users dictate the logic, the actually underlying code is very uniform and consistent.
Their app will also use public/ private keys and digital signatures and check sums will be used to detect file tampering. In their whitepaper they also state that cache data won’t be stored, all data will be encrypted, all communication is SSL/TLS and they will employ 3rd parties to detect malicious payloads in the memory.
Multi chain interoperability
Sparkster can already be used with both Ethereum and Iota, with plans to increase this down the line. This is all to cater for preferences of the user. This is a very transparent platform and tailored around usability and ease.
https://preview.redd.it/c23z7yl2zf311.png?width=451&format=png&auto=webp&s=81c05aeb65a528dd482fc97c4803cb2712b40fd7
Source: (Sparkster, 2018)
Token economics
Stats
Value
The value model proposed by their whitepaper suggests that the global marketplace will be the value driver of the platform. So, people can create and sell content on an open peer-peer market, with the value flowing though the Spark token. Small platform fees will be charged on transactions on the platform (Not on free contributions).
It is a utility tokens because its purpose is to facilitate payments, it will also be the only currency accepted on the platform. Once the decentralised cloud is released in Q4 2018, miners will be able to earn Spark tokens.
I believe this will be a market leader when it comes to mass adoption of blockchain, this is truly a one model fits all platform and it is with growth of the platform which will drive the value of the tokens up. Also, the Spark token is essential to the cloud functionality as miners need to stake tokens to ensure good behaviour, if the opposite occur verification nodes claim these takes, this makes the tokens essential to the smooth running of the platform.
Breakdown of token distribution
Use of funds:
Team
In my view the team has a huge wealth of experience within it. This consists of:
2 all-star advisors
4 on the leadership team
17 further team members (Sparkster Warriors)
· These team members range from software engineers, developers, designers, project team leaders, programmers and digital marketers.
· There is so much experience in this team it would take all day to write about them, but a wide encompassing team like this shows they are serious about what they doing.
Conclusion
This is a not to be missed ICO. I really feel like this is one of the all star ICO’s this year. There is nothing more that really needs to be said, I would just advise you that if you are considering this project then go to their website and test the platform for yourself. It is the walkthroughs that sold me on this project and one which I will be investing in.
Additional reading (Links)
Link 1- AMA with Ian Balina (All-star ICO): https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_K9j_EGHbpc
Link 2- Sparkster bounty programme: http://sparkster.me/try?r=DU2VUW45
Link 3- Sparkster whitepaper: https://drive.google.com/file/d/1_341kbDEDc9PWn4lbsCGpAmcqDqcggUq/view
Link 4: Sparkster founder &Ceo speaking at MWC 2018: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=X-Jf9_fcxYo
Link 5: Sparkster website: https://sparkster.me/
References
· En.wikipedia.org. (2018). Solidity. [online] Available at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solidity [Accessed 11 Jun. 2018].
· Sparkster (2018). Build and Run Decentralized Software in Plain English. [ebook] Sparkster whitepaper, pp.1-57. Available at: https://drive.google.com/file/d/1_341kbDEDc9PWn4lbsCGpAmcqDqcggUq/view [Accessed 11 Jun.
· Sparkster.me. (2018). Sparkster – Build Apps, Write No Code. [online] Available at: https://sparkster.me/ [Accessed 11 Jun. 2018].018].
submitted by Mick2018 to Sparkster [link] [comments]

Disaster averted: How I would go about addressing climate change

There is a lot of despair surrounding climate change lately, because the future we had hoped for did not unfold. The despair is justified to a large degree, as a lot of things have gone terrible wrong. As an example, the Americans have decided to elect a president who doesn't want to commit to reducing carbon emissions and instead wants to subsidize the dying coal industry.
I don't feel like delving too much into the question of what causes this delusional mentality, nor do I feel like addressing the various arguments people have come up with to justify sticking their heads into the sand. Today I'd rather look at some of the things we can still do, to preserve a habitable planet. Even if the catastrophic predictions about positive feedback loops that go around turn out to be correct, it's unjustified to state that all hope is lost. There's a lot that can still be done, that people haven't adequately considered. I hope to cover some of those projects today.

Emergency interventions for threatened ecosystems

You might have seen some of the studies that came out, arguing that limiting the temperature rise to 1.5 degree Celsius would be insufficient to save most of the world's coral reefs. The coral reefs seem to be the most urgently threatened ecosystems out there. However, there are a number of emergency measures we can take, that would help us to buy time to prevent the coral reefs from dying.
As an example, we can emit sulfates into the atmosphere, that block sunlight. It's estimated that one kilogram of well-placed sulfates, can offset the effects of hundreds of thousands of kilogram of carbon dioxide. Studies have been done on this subject, which found that placing sulphates into the atmosphere, would help us to prevent the coral reefs from dying. Other emergence measures for the coral reefs are discussed here.
Important of course to note is that the coral reefs aren't just at risk of extreme temperatures, they're threatened by ocean acification too. However, ocean acidification can also be addressed to some degree as well. Seaweed takes up carbon from the ocean when it grows, thus locally reducing the Ph of the ocean. Studies are being done, that look at protecting coral reefs, by building seaweed farms near the coral reefs. The seaweed farms are found to be able to buy us anywhere between 7 to 21 years.
Of course, it's important to note that we first need to ensure that seaweed cultivation becomes economically viable on such a large scale. A good start would be to start eating seaweed. Globally, seaweed cultivation is the fastest growing crop, growing by an estimated 8% per year. Billions of people worldwide receive too little iodine in their diet, including an estimated 70% of people in the United Kingdom. I personally try to eat a lot of seaweed. If the seaweed industry grows fast enough, costs may eventually drop down enough, to allow us to feed seaweed to our pets and to farm animals, before we will eventually use seaweed as a form of biomass for renewable energy.

The meat industry

The Japanese eat a third of the amount of meat Americans eat, but live four years longer on average, with far less obesity, heart disease, diabetes and cancer. I think humans benefit from some animal products in their diet, but we certainly don't need as much meat in our diet as we eat in the Western world. The ideal scenario would be if we could eliminate the consumption of all domesticated vertebrates. Instead, the main meat we would continue to eat would be from shellfish.
We're approaching the point where we can grow meat in labs, at commercially viable prices. When this happens the amount of land needed to produce meat is reduced by 99%, while greenhouse gas emissions are reduced by 78-96%. Globally, the vast majority of the land we use, is used to grow animals who end up as meat on our dinner plate.
It's clear that if lab-grown meat can be deployed on a large enough scale, large-scale reforestation of the planet becomes a viable objective to pursue. Many farms will go bankrupt, while massive migrations from the countryside towards the city will occur, as new jobs will emerge in cities, at the cost of rural lands. Governments can and should encourage this development. An easy way to encourage this development, would be to level the playing field. You don't need to subsidize lab-grown meat, we can easily stand on our own feed. Instead, get rid of your agricultural subsidies for meat production.
I'm all in favor of Britain withdrawing from the EU, because the EU pumps billions of dollars every year into an unsustainable form of agriculture that puts our planet on the path towards global annihilation while filling the pockets of blue-blooded aristocrats who happen to have inherited a lot of land, most of which was simply stolen over successive generations.

Renewable energy

I have long been skeptical, but it's clear to me now that an economy based on renewable energy can function. It might not be easy and it may take some adaptation, but we can sustain civilization without fossil fuels. The big argument generally brought up against renewable energy is that renewable energy is an intermittent form of energy.
However, this doesn't have to be a significant problem, if we consider the simple fact that our civilization can learn to use energy on an intermittent basis. As an example, a house that's well insulated can lose 1 degree Celsius of heat, when it goes four hours without being heated. Thus, if you're dealing with intermittent electricity, excess electricity could quite easily be used to heat the house.
How would you go about using excess electricity to heat your house? I can think of many ways, but here's an example: If your computer is using Boinc, it could quite easily be set up to start grinding once electricity prices are cheap and temperatures in your house are low. Once Gridcoin becomes a success, this will actually earn you money. Similarly, when your refrigerator is closed, like it generally is during the night, it can quite easily go a few hours without cooling. Appliances can quite easily be designed to work with the reality of intermittent electricity.
Of course I'm not suggesting here that we could cope with a world where everything runs on intermittent solar and wind, with zero storage. Fortunately, to some degree we will find ourselves able to store electricity. Electrical cars can be used to donate electricity to the grid, during moments of (looming) shortage. In addition to this, we will always maintain a source of electricity that's not intermittent: Biomass. In the ideal scenario, we will create giant seaweed farms, where seaweed is grown that's then burned in our current coal plants. The carbon that's emitted when the seaweed is burned can then be used for various purposes, rather than being dumped into the atmosphere.
I often see the argument proposed that some solution can't be scaled. There is not enough lithium for electrical cars, there is not enough lead for batteries, there is not enough land for biofuels, there are not enough empty roofs for solar panels, etcetera. What's forgotten in these arguments, is that none of these solutions will have to stand on their own. Climate change is not an easy problem, but it's a problem that's going to be solved by applying many different solutions. Some societies will be successful at this and succeed, others will fail and become failed states. America under Trump is likely to join the latter category.
Another issue that's forgotten, is the fact that we're really spoiled, to a degree that it harms us. What would happen if Americans would suddenly have their electricity supply drop by fifty percent? If they can't learn to use electricity more efficiently, they would have to return to the standard of living they had in the 1960's. Did people die of hunger in the streets back then? As far as I can tell, they played more card and board games and went out more, rather than staring at screens. I think if we lost fifty percent of our electricity supply, we would be miserable for a few months, before we would breathe a sigh of relief and learn to deal with it. To me, the real question is whether we have the willpower to do what needs to be done, not whether it can be done or not.

Carbon sequestration

I've already shown that we can free large amounts of land through lab-grown meat, that can then be used to grow enormous forests that will sequester carbon dioxide. The Amazon rainforest can be restored to its original extent, if we play our cards right.
However, it doesn't stop here. We have alternative methods of carbon sequestration available to us too. If we covered 9% of the world's oceans with seaweed, we could sequester all the carbon dioxide we emit per year today. The reality remains that most of the ocean consists of deserts, where nothing can live because seaweed, corals and shellfish don't have the attachment points to grow and develop a rich ecosystem.
You might have seen some of the nature documentaries, where an old ship is dumped at the right location, to make an artificial coral reef. This can be done in many ways, for many different organisms. Wind farms in the North Sea were discovered a few months ago to serve as perfect places for oysters to attach to. These oysters grow there now and attract other animals, that live off the oysters.
In a similar manner, humans can grow seaweed in places, simply by creating attachment points for these plants. We're used to destroying ecosystems, turning giant forests into deserts as we have done around the world. What we're capable of doing too, is turning oceanic deserts into giant underwater forests. It doesn't require intense effort, we're already doing it by accident, as the wind turbines in the North Sea have demonstrated.
When we grow biomass, we think of it as a carbon-neutral form of energy production. We can easily turn it into a carbon-negative form of energy production however, simply by using the carbon dioxide. There are many different forms of carbon sequestration. The most promising perhaps, is to build with carbon-negative concrete, which is concrete that's built using carbon dioxide.
Concrete production currently causes 5% of all global CO2 emissions. It's thought however, that we can produce concrete that sequesters twice as much carbon as regular concrete emits. We would thus be able to reduce CO2 emisisons by 15%, simply by replacing all of our current concrete with this new carbon-negative concrete.
The curve of technology adaptation is becoming steeper. Whereas it took a century before most people in Western nations had cars, it took ten years before most of us had internet. How fast do you think we can transition to 100% carbon-negative concrete? I think this can be accomplished within a few years, if we're willing to make the transition.
Similarly, in Iceland, power plants are being developed that sequester carbon dioxide while generating energy. Of course the amount sequestered is not enormous yet, the equivalent of 150 Bitcoin transactions, but it's a first step in the right direction.

Cognitive enhancement

I think this solution is important to note, even if it will seem like far-fetched science-fiction to some of you. This is ultimately a solution on which every above solution will come to depend. We're used to problems that have a singular unified solution. Climate change is not such a problem, it requires reconfiguring our entire carbon-based economy. We will find ourselves faced with a situation that may require hundreds of small solutions, rather than one single big solution. This requires intelligent people, who are capable of discovering and implementing such solutions.
What we need right now is a cultural transition, that will lead people to take this problem seriously. When people take the problem seriously, they'll take the solutions seriously and move towards implementing them. One important thing we've noted, is that people's environmental attitude, is strongly linked to their ability to delay gratification. People who are able to delay gratification, desire to take care of the environment they inhabit. Delayed gratification in turn, is a product of intelligence.
When we look at societies where people try to take care of the environment they inhabit, we find that the people there tend to be relatively intelligent. Consider for example, the two nations where the highest percentage of the population considers climate change to be caused by human activity: South Korea and Japan. South Koreans and Japanese people are among the most intelligent people on the planet. Similarly, Chinese people score at the top of the list.
Why do Americans stick their heads into the sand? Why do they vote for leaders who pretend the problem isn't real? Why are you guaranteed to have some American numbnuts show up in the comment section of any article about climate change, insisting that we'll soon have a solar minimum that will somehow end the problem, that the climate has always changed, that volcanoes actually emit more CO2 than humans, that carbon dioxide makes plants grow, that climate change is actually caused by poor Indians and Africans who have too many children rather than by Americans, or that it only seems like the Earth is warming because of measuring stations located near cities?
The answer is, that on average Americans are simply not very intelligent people. Keep in mind, that 41% of Americans genuinely believe that Jesus will return to Earth before the year 2050. Besides lacking intelligence, they lack the ability to think critically. They're good at selectively seeking out information they already want to believe. Like a bunch of parrots in a tree they'll blindly copy whatever they're hearing and amplify each other's stupidity to soothe their nerves. We can discuss all of the various reasons why Americans are not very intelligent and poorly capable of critical thought in a later essay. It's worth noting however, that most Americans suffer from very poor health, which diminishes their innate cognitive potential.
Imagine if the whole world had the level of intelligence of Japanese or South Korean people. People there have birth rates and immigration policies that ensure their population is gradually declining. Japanese people eat a third of the meat American people eat. In addition, Japanese people emit 70% less CO2 in transportation, than Americans.
The reality we're dealing with, is that our problem would be relatively easy to solve, if we lived on a planet with seven billion people with a level of intelligence equivalent to that of East Asians. The global overpopulation crisis we face is almost entirely caused by religious fundamentalism. Religious fundamentalism in turn, is caused by people who lack intelligence. Intelligent people, capable of critical thinking, don't force children to carry out suicide bombings. A society with sufficient intelligent people, is one where dumb people adjust themselves to the culture of intelligent people, whereas in most societies the opposite occurs.
The solution we're looking for, is thus ultimately a form of cognitive enhancement. There are many different ways to go about this. It's possible for people to select the smartest embryo to implant, to ensure children have a genetic potential that far outweighs their parents.
There are however, far simpler probably more cost-effective methods we can already use right now. Millions of people, even in Western nations, suffer from iodine deficiency during pregnancy. This permanently stunts the IQ of their children. Similarly, we can feed people a healthy diet with sufficient Omega 3 fatty acids, encourage breastfeeding and eliminate gestational diabetes, while reducing exposure to fluoride which competitively displaces iodine in the human body.
If these solutions are genuinely pursued, we will raise the average IQ of the world's population, which should be sufficient to create the kind of conditions where people vote for leaders who take climate change seriously and pursue serious effort to preserve a habitable planet. We don't have to be like deer on an island, because we will have the cognitive potential to plan ahead for the crisis that looms ahead of us.
submitted by sourdoughsauerkraut to accountt1234 [link] [comments]

Subreddit Stats: Bitcoin top posts from 2017-01-09 to 2017-02-08 00:18 PDT

Period: 29.84 days
Submissions Comments
Total 999 46557
Rate (per day) 33.48 1507.53
Unique Redditors 653 6643
Combined Score 110856 177455

Top Submitters' Top Submissions

  1. 3932 points, 2 submissions: tuqqs
    1. Clearly not mainstream yet (2808 points, 104 comments)
    2. what it'll look like, when it happens (1124 points, 195 comments)
  2. 3593 points, 19 submissions: helmsk
    1. Countdown: Bitcoin Will Be a Legal Method of Payment in Japan in Two Months (2316 points, 151 comments)
    2. Europe Lays Out Roadmap to Restrict Payments in Cash and Cryptocurrencies (317 points, 102 comments)
    3. Polish Bitcoin Adoption Escalating with Strong Ecosystem (86 points, 4 comments)
    4. Why South Korean Bitcoin Adoption Could Outpace Most Other Countries This Year (74 points, 3 comments)
    5. Pakistan Set to Become a Major Bitcoin Hub (72 points, 49 comments)
    6. UAE Did Not Ban Bitcoin (72 points, 2 comments)
    7. Europe Committed to Tightening Digital Currency Rules by End of 2017 (71 points, 23 comments)
    8. How to Start Your Own Bitcoin ATM Business (67 points, 15 comments)
    9. Coincheck's Growth Reveals Surging Japanese Bitcoin Trade (62 points, 8 comments)
    10. How Trump's Wall and Remittance Tax Could Give Bitcoin a Boost (60 points, 23 comments)
  3. 3177 points, 2 submissions: futureofeverything
    1. "R.I.P. Bitcoin. It's Time to Move On"....funny billboard driving around in Miami (3136 points, 227 comments)
    2. Why Venezuela's Currency Crisis Is A Case Study For Bitcoin (41 points, 1 comment)
  4. 2577 points, 7 submissions: Pizpie
    1. Welcome to Bitcoin, everyone. Don't worry, he'll recover. (1353 points, 155 comments)
    2. Breaking: Huobi & BTCC stopped margin trading, OKc leverage only 1x, finally no more fake BTC generated by exchange (485 points, 160 comments)
    3. Breaking: Bitcoin exchange Coinbase receives New York BitLicense (242 points, 55 comments)
    4. Canada Goose is thinking about accepting Bitcoin - Let them know what you think! (191 points, 49 comments)
    5. Confirmed: Huobi reactivates margin trading, with a limit of 100k CNY instead of 10 million CNY. (160 points, 79 comments)
    6. BREAKING: Huobi official announcement: We are considering charging trading fees. (80 points, 25 comments)
    7. Breaking: PBOC strikes again - Lending disabled on BTCC (66 points, 70 comments)
  5. 1941 points, 1 submission: bahatassafus
    1. Internet Archive: $3000 donated anonymously to the @internetarchive in bitcoin just now. Made our day! Thank you! (1941 points, 31 comments)
  6. 1338 points, 1 submission: kynek99
    1. Deutsche Bank - More than $10 billion in transactions never appeared on the books. That's why banksters don't want to use public blockchains. (1338 points, 96 comments)
  7. 1294 points, 1 submission: umbawumpa
    1. Julian Assange just used the current block hash as proof-of-not-prerecorded-interview in his AMA (1294 points, 182 comments)
  8. 1272 points, 2 submissions: Butt_Cheek_Spreader
    1. When you ride the bitcoin rally (1189 points, 204 comments)
    2. OKcoin and Huobi provided margin trading that violated rules resulting in abnormal price and fluctuations. (83 points, 28 comments)
  9. 1258 points, 4 submissions: dan_from_san_diego
    1. I started mining bitcoin in the desert. Here's some of what I have learned. (516 points, 575 comments)
    2. Chase is closing my account due to bitcoin purchases. Nice. (478 points, 410 comments)
    3. Here are some pictures of the solar greenhouse in the desert I am using to mine bitcoin. (140 points, 303 comments)
    4. Man... Brian Kelly from CNBC really fell hard for bitcoin. I like that! (124 points, 27 comments)
  10. 1250 points, 10 submissions: PoCaMiQu
    1. Can we fucking acknowledge that the Chinese Government just legitimized bitcoin? (604 points, 154 comments)
    2. WTF Huffington Post <---Fake News: "Bitcoin Plummets On Yuan Reversal" (218 points, 71 comments)
    3. This is what I like to see when checking daily's finances. (122 points, 22 comments)
    4. Beautiful balance (71 points, 13 comments)
    5. Reminder: Bitcoin's immutability is not only not a bug, but its main feature. Scalability comes secondary to it. (44 points, 20 comments)
    6. Bitcoin Price Gets Ready to Factor In Winklevoss Bitcoin ETF Approval (43 points, 24 comments)
    7. Paxful - a global leader in peer-to-peer bitcoin technology - has launched a new widget, allowing anyone to buy bitcoin worldwide instantly with over 300 ways to pay. (41 points, 34 comments)
    8. Scaling Revisited: What If Bitcoin's Big 'Problem' is Its Great Strength? (38 points, 16 comments)
    9. Flashback to the 90's: Interviewer asks Fed Chair "What is Blockchain?" (37 points, 21 comments)
    10. It seems all those FUD mongers were wrong when they predicted the price would crash without China's "liquidity" (32 points, 13 comments)
  11. 1155 points, 16 submissions: eragmus
    1. Ben Davenport (BitGo CTO): "Centralization of mining has led to some miners thinking they're in charge of Bitcoin. They forgot where Bitcoin's value comes from." (169 points, 112 comments)
    2. [Twitter Poll] Charlie Lee (Director of Engineering @ Coinbase): "What's the most important feature of Bitcoin that we must not sacrifice? Decentralization, Security, Low fees, Global payments" (116 points, 62 comments)
    3. Hernz: "Did you know you can get paid to help spread misinformation? -birds dot bitcoin dot com-" (hosted by Roger Ver) (106 points, 38 comments)
    4. The Passion of 'Bitcoin Jesus': How The Blockchain's Most Beloved Investor Became its Most Polarizing (101 points, 52 comments)
    5. Jonas Nick: "MimbleWimble blockchain (non-interactive coinjoin + pruning) may be able to support Lightning" / ref: Andrew Poelstra @ lists.launchpad.net/mimblewimble/msg00022.html (96 points, 19 comments)
    6. Bitcoin Core - IRC Meeting Summary (January 19, 2016) (83 points, 16 comments)
    7. Bitcoin Core - IRC Meeting Summary (January 12, 2016) (68 points, 7 comments)
    8. WhalePanda: "Analyzed @rogerkver's 'Cry Wolf' tactic on censorship on /bitcoin." (59 points, 16 comments)
    9. Inside MAST: The Little-Known Plan to Advance Bitcoin Smart Contracts (52 points, 8 comments)
    10. Bitcoin Core - IRC Meeting Summary (January 5, 2016) (51 points, 2 comments)
  12. 1155 points, 14 submissions: castom
    1. Russian Authorities: Bitcoin Poses No Threat, Won’t Be Banned (575 points, 80 comments)
    2. Bitcoin Goes to Washington - Trump May Hire More Digital Currency Leaders (86 points, 50 comments)
    3. With Another $30 Million Investment, BitFury becomes the Highest-funded Bitcoin Company (80 points, 3 comments)
    4. Nigeria's Bitcoin Interest Unwavering Despite Government Crackdown (64 points, 3 comments)
    5. German TV Calls Bitcoin "Digital Gold" (46 points, 3 comments)
    6. A Town in Illinois Just Announced It's Holding a Bitcoin Sale (46 points, 9 comments)
    7. Coinbase CEO: IRS Battle Could Cost Startup $1 Million (43 points, 15 comments)
    8. Xapo Now Licensed to Operate from Switzerland (39 points, 2 comments)
    9. Bitcoin Payments Startup BitPesa Raises $2.5 Million (32 points, 0 comments)
    10. Lawsuit Accuses Bitcoin ATM Owner of Smashing Competing Machines With Hammers (31 points, 18 comments)
  13. 1140 points, 4 submissions: bdd4
    1. sigh (859 points, 189 comments)
    2. As Predicted. 🙄 PBoC (137 points, 86 comments)
    3. Friendly Reminder: Bitcoin is still up 2.6% for the last 30 days (94 points, 8 comments)
    4. Dead Man's Switch for HODLers (50 points, 84 comments)
  14. 1104 points, 3 submissions: Vaultoro
    1. "Great minds discuss ideas; average minds discuss events; small minds discuss people." can we please stop this culture of bashing or lifting cults of personality and get back to science? (807 points, 143 comments)
    2. The house of Nakamoto in the main shopping strip of Vienna gets massive new bitcoin logo signage 2 stories big, 4 times 4 meters of epic propaganda! (265 points, 32 comments)
    3. I saw a post here that little snitch takes bitcoin. I just purchased a copy! Great little app and well worth 30 bucks. (32 points, 9 comments)
  15. 1088 points, 3 submissions: Carlscrazyidea
    1. You can now buy Bitcoin from any 7-11 in the Philippines! (1021 points, 136 comments)
    2. What is my impact as a Bitcoin holder? (41 points, 45 comments)
    3. I am a Hodling noob who still has a lot of Hodling work to do! (26 points, 30 comments)
  16. 1060 points, 7 submissions: Bitcohen
    1. Mercedes Buys Bitcoin Service Provider in 'Digitization Strategy' (518 points, 70 comments)
    2. Mercedes-Benz cars are now being sold for Bitcoin in Venezuela (348 points, 68 comments)
    3. Dutch Pirate Party pays 11,250 Euro deposit in Bitcoin to Electoral Council (68 points, 9 comments)
    4. Amir Taaki & Cody Wilson's Bitcoin support described by film critic as “defense of criminality” at Sundance Film Festival 2017 (44 points, 13 comments)
    5. Russia's Kaliningrad May Trial 'Legal' Bitcoin, Launch Exchange (31 points, 2 comments)
    6. Bitcurex Owner 'Disappears' After Failing to Return 2,300 BTC (26 points, 2 comments)
    7. Liverpool Launches Own Digital Currency Based on Bitcoin's Blockchain Tech - Attracts 3,000 Users in First Month (25 points, 1 comment)
  17. 1009 points, 1 submission: worstkeptsecrets
    1. Bitcoin on NewEgg. 3rd option! Ahead of Credit Card and PayPal! #ITSHAPPENING (1009 points, 92 comments)
  18. 975 points, 1 submission: SooieSide
    1. You can't get to the moon on a roller coaster. (975 points, 73 comments)
  19. 941 points, 4 submissions: Logical007
    1. UPDATE: Nearly all of Circle's 5 Star Ratings have disappeared today for their latest version (Jan 5th). A stark difference to what we saw earlier, looks like action was taken. (633 points, 177 comments)
    2. Bloomberg: Wyre CEO: "Bitcoin is a good investment for everyone." (VIDEO (188 points, 13 comments)
    3. Bitcoin isn't 'real money'. Google, you need to work on your search results. (85 points, 38 comments)
    4. Coinbase, please fix your merchant invoices on iOS 10. They haven't worked properly for months (while BitPay's work perfectly). Details and screenshot inside. (35 points, 5 comments)
  20. 896 points, 1 submission: amendment64
    1. Just paid 23 cents on a $3.74 transaction. When does it end? $1.00 per transaction? $2? $5? I don't wanna stop using this peer to peer currency, but I'm fast being priced out of it. (896 points, 1017 comments)
  21. 884 points, 2 submissions: theswapman
    1. Bitcoiner interrupts Shia LaBeouf's "He Will Not Divide Us" stream with chant that Bitcoin Will Unite Us! (456 points, 204 comments)
    2. PSA: Xapo will freeze your bitcoin and demand documents AFTER you have deposited (428 points, 101 comments)
  22. 820 points, 3 submissions: MorrisMustang
    1. South Florida Distillers uses heat from bitcoin mining to accelerate rum barrel aging! (709 points, 66 comments)
    2. "See, bitcoin is down 9.75% over the past month...I told you it crashed..." says my wife (72 points, 64 comments)
    3. EthereRum by South Florida Distillers, the worlds first rum distilled from mining heat. Stayed tuned for more details. (39 points, 21 comments)
  23. 799 points, 5 submissions: finalhedge
    1. Patrick Byrne (Overstock CEO) on Fox Business Channel today (288 points, 57 comments)
    2. "Sent my first instant bitcoin LN payment to a random irc user on testnet. Second-layer tech for the win!" | Justin Camarena on Twitter (250 points, 64 comments)
    3. Balaji Srinivasan (21 CEO) just deleted his whole tweet history. Heading to the FDA? (137 points, 69 comments)
    4. BARRY SILBERT'S BITCOIN INVESTMENT TRUST FILES FOR IPO (99 points, 10 comments)
    5. Bloomberg: 'Blockchain' Fans Will Have A Rude Awakening In 2017 (25 points, 2 comments)
  24. 798 points, 9 submissions: FluxSeer
    1. Gemini Introduces Zero-Confirmation Bitcoin Deposits (205 points, 69 comments)
    2. Bitcoin Mining Distribution 2012 vs. 2017 (146 points, 69 comments)
    3. When someone says Bitcoin is a ponzi/scam/etc... Send them this link. (131 points, 24 comments)
    4. Developer Release for OpenBazaar 2.0 (123 points, 45 comments)
    5. Federal Reserve Staffer Fined for Mining Bitcoins at Work (62 points, 4 comments)
    6. A Future Led by Bitcoin Unlimited is a Centralized Future (56 points, 38 comments)
    7. Blockstream joins Digital Garage to jointly develop next-generation financial technology (33 points, 15 comments)
    8. Bitcoin Matrix Wallpaper (1920x1080) (23 points, 6 comments)
    9. The ECB Explains Why Central Banks Can't Go Bankrupt (19 points, 7 comments)
  25. 796 points, 1 submission: kidblondie
    1. [AMA] I'm the woman who got pepper sprayed wearing the "Make Bitcoin Great Again" hat. (796 points, 938 comments)
  26. 709 points, 1 submission: silver_89
    1. Liftoff (709 points, 282 comments)
  27. 697 points, 2 submissions: Tfoe1399
    1. Huge shoutout to BTC.com for giving me back my money (666 points, 91 comments)
    2. So this just happened (31 points, 101 comments)
  28. 691 points, 3 submissions: jholmes91
    1. Antonopoulos Supports SegWit, Opens Doors For Lightning and TumbleBit (315 points, 112 comments)
    2. Donald Trump is Considering a Bitcoin Entrepreneur to Lead the FDA (220 points, 137 comments)
    3. Japanese Internet Giant GMO Announces Entrance to Bitcoin Wallet Market (156 points, 14 comments)
  29. 688 points, 2 submissions: belcher_
    1. bitcoin.com loses 13.2BTC trying to fork the network: Untested and buggy BU creates an oversized block, Many BU node banned, the HF fails (543 points, 428 comments)
    2. Segwit talk by Pieter Wuille. 25 minutes talk time (145 points, 21 comments)
  30. 673 points, 9 submissions: Lite_Coin_Guy
    1. Litecoin Moves to Adopt Bitcoin's SegWit Scaling Upgrade (155 points, 86 comments)
    2. If Bitcoin ETF approval ignites speculative rush, doesn't that prove intense latent demand, blocked only by the SEC? (120 points, 22 comments)
    3. Big miners are free to create their Unlimited coin, but if they try to kill Bitcoin it will resist censorship and route around it. (108 points, 103 comments)
    4. What is money? (93 points, 56 comments)
    5. Charlie Shrems next jail time? (50 points, 15 comments)
    6. In 1996 they said the Internet was in need of a "killer app". In 2016, they said #Bitcoin needed a "killer app", too. (39 points, 17 comments)
    7. Introduction to Bitcoin & Blockchains (38 points, 5 comments)
    8. Evaporative Two-Phase Immersion Cooling (Bitfury) (37 points, 6 comments)
    9. Crypto '98 Rump Session- Hal Finney (33 points, 8 comments)
  31. 635 points, 8 submissions: olivercarding
    1. Bitcoin Has Many Fans at Amazon According to Purse CEO Andrew Lee (152 points, 39 comments)
    2. Bitcoin is Closing in On Its Transaction Capacity Limit, For Real This Time (110 points, 155 comments)
    3. The Founder of India-Based Bitcoin Mining Pool GBMiners is Running a Ponzi Scheme (105 points, 50 comments)
    4. How Bitcoin Is Disrupting The Online Gambling Industry (98 points, 74 comments)
    5. Report Estimates There are More Than 10 Million Bitcoin Holders Worldwide (91 points, 54 comments)
    6. Blockchain Announces Expansion in Middle East; Partners with Dubai Government (32 points, 7 comments)
    7. 3 Teams Receive Funding from $1.2 Million Bitcoin Development Grant, More Funds Incoming (27 points, 7 comments)
    8. Digital Garage and Blockstream Collaborate on New Blockchain Solutions for Japanese Market (20 points, 0 comments)
  32. 630 points, 1 submission: classna
    1. FOMO-ing right now (630 points, 85 comments)
  33. 621 points, 7 submissions: _smudger_
    1. Bitcoin: Why It Now Belongs in Every Portfolio (206 points, 33 comments)
    2. Bitcoin ETF may attract $300 million in the first week, says Needham & company (205 points, 103 comments)
    3. It's time to start thinking about denominating Bitcoins in mBTC permanently. Might be the last time to buy some for less than a dollar each! (82 points, 127 comments)
    4. Big China bitcoin exchange says no government pressure on outflows (46 points, 6 comments)
    5. New weekly record in Local Bitcoin volumes plus new highs in Canada, Colombia, Denmark, Saudi Arabia, Thailand and Venezuela (36 points, 1 comment)
    6. Despite the recent drop the price is hitting new records when averaged over a year (24 points, 10 comments)
    7. Press Release: CD Key retailer CJS CD Keys now Accepting Bitcoin (22 points, 3 comments)
  34. 597 points, 1 submission: arichnad
    1. mac has the new bitcoin Unicode character already! (597 points, 81 comments)
  35. 594 points, 1 submission: drvox1600
    1. Bitcoin just hit $1000 USD! :D (594 points, 147 comments)
  36. 573 points, 4 submissions: bitcoinglobe
    1. Japanese internet giant, GMO, entering bitcoin exchange and wallet markets (451 points, 26 comments)
    2. Abra overview (52 points, 22 comments)
    3. Japan Could See 20,000 Bitcoin Accepting Merchants in 2017 - CryptoCoinsNews (44 points, 5 comments)
    4. Bitcoin is gold with a teleporter (26 points, 2 comments)
  37. 567 points, 9 submissions: PrimeParticle
    1. "Introduction to Bitcoin" - Andreas Antonopoulos (Probably one of the best videos for introducing bitcoin). (131 points, 7 comments)
    2. Venezuela's currency now worth so little shopkeepers weigh vast piles of notes instead of counting them (118 points, 42 comments)
    3. Coins are cheaper in China by $30 to $50 dollars for the first time in a long time, that means... (92 points, 87 comments)
    4. Andreas Antonopoulos - The Death of Money | London Real (57 points, 1 comment)
    5. Abra: Bitcoin To Fiat Withdrawals At Tellers Globally! - 2017 North American Bitcoin Conference (47 points, 14 comments)
    6. Remember that you can use CPFP or RBF to get your transactions confirmed faster. (45 points, 46 comments)
    7. Bitcoin Q&A: The Lightning Network & Rootstock (30 points, 1 comment)
    8. Public Perception of Bitcoin is Slowly Shifting Amid Global Financial Turmoil (25 points, 1 comment)
    9. Bitcoin is shrugging off some big news of out of China (22 points, 1 comment)
  38. 561 points, 1 submission: kevsudos
    1. Bitcoin Hodlers Be Like........ (561 points, 96 comments)
  39. 543 points, 1 submission: turn-down-for-what
    1. $1,000! (543 points, 49 comments)
  40. 539 points, 1 submission: BlahYourHamster
    1. [META] Can we use the Bitcoin Rollercoster Guy as the upvote and downvote arrows? (539 points, 49 comments)
  41. 538 points, 7 submissions: themetalfriend
    1. The real superhero (210 points, 15 comments)
    2. Countries where you can survive on Bitcoin (map) (76 points, 88 comments)
    3. How practical is it to live on Bitcoin: historical progress (gif) (63 points, 40 comments)
    4. Among the countries with the strongest Bitcoin adoption: Slovenia, Finland, Singapore, Hong Kong, Canada, Switzerland (63 points, 13 comments)
    5. Long-term bitcoiner checking this sub (51 points, 9 comments)
    6. The complete list of the factors that influence the value of Bitcoin (45 points, 29 comments)
    7. Will Bitcoin work on Mars? (30 points, 41 comments)
  42. 521 points, 2 submissions: roasbeef
    1. Announcing the Alpha Release of the Lightning Network Daemon! (427 points, 152 comments)
    2. Setting up and Testing LND with the Testnet Lightning Faucet (94 points, 7 comments)
  43. 506 points, 1 submission: ToTheMoonGuy
    1. Super Bowl Bitcoin Lady (506 points, 37 comments)
  44. 484 points, 1 submission: ssienk117
    1. My new Phone background. Thanks u/SooieSide/ (484 points, 30 comments)
  45. 472 points, 2 submissions: Wingsuit
    1. I think duck duck go should improve their decimal accuracy (386 points, 41 comments)
    2. Bitcoin achieves leetness in Australia (86 points, 12 comments)
  46. 470 points, 1 submission: robertgenito
    1. The REAL good ol' days of bitcoin... (470 points, 103 comments)
  47. 444 points, 1 submission: loserkids
    1. Bitcoin saved my ass in South East Asia (444 points, 115 comments)
  48. 441 points, 1 submission: boyber
    1. LibreTaxi, free and open source UbeLyft alternative to connect passengers and drivers - bitcoin integration on the way! (441 points, 94 comments)

Top Commenters

  1. nullc (2659 points, 215 comments)
  2. kidblondie (2127 points, 89 comments)
  3. BashCo (1530 points, 293 comments)
  4. dellintelbitcoin (1400 points, 372 comments)
  5. smartfbrankings (1141 points, 265 comments)
  6. belcher_ (1031 points, 149 comments)
  7. Frogolocalypse (986 points, 322 comments)
  8. dan_from_san_diego (949 points, 554 comments)
  9. Cryptolution (851 points, 226 comments)
  10. Vaultoro (822 points, 100 comments)
  11. thieflar (792 points, 231 comments)
  12. Lite_Coin_Guy (748 points, 219 comments)
  13. Cryptoconomy (728 points, 134 comments)
  14. Coinosphere (723 points, 282 comments)
  15. luke-jr (718 points, 141 comments)
  16. waxwing (707 points, 117 comments)
  17. bitsteiner (658 points, 157 comments)
  18. BitttBurger (646 points, 157 comments)
  19. shesek1 (607 points, 132 comments)
  20. pb1x (595 points, 76 comments)
  21. jratcliff63367 (591 points, 45 comments)
  22. supermari0 (587 points, 131 comments)
  23. bitusher (581 points, 96 comments)
  24. 4n4n4 (576 points, 79 comments)
  25. coinjaf (562 points, 225 comments)
  26. glockbtc (541 points, 168 comments)
  27. 45sbvad (539 points, 102 comments)
  28. killerstorm (536 points, 119 comments)
  29. adam3us (527 points, 66 comments)
  30. maaku7 (527 points, 63 comments)
  31. nopara73 (523 points, 120 comments)
  32. phor2zero (499 points, 66 comments)
  33. PrimeParticle (496 points, 108 comments)
  34. sreaka (495 points, 155 comments)
  35. jonny1000 (488 points, 98 comments)
  36. CoinCadence (487 points, 77 comments)
  37. SatoshisCat (480 points, 150 comments)
  38. petertodd (473 points, 24 comments)
  39. spoonfednonsense (472 points, 126 comments)
  40. Hitchslappy (472 points, 102 comments)
  41. albuminvasion (466 points, 84 comments)
  42. Taek42 (456 points, 44 comments)
  43. chrisrico (452 points, 87 comments)
  44. AnonymousRev (451 points, 115 comments)
  45. the_bob (443 points, 114 comments)
  46. satoshicoin (438 points, 65 comments)
  47. Riiume (434 points, 83 comments)
  48. exab (430 points, 125 comments)
  49. jimmajamma (422 points, 141 comments)
  50. brg444 (421 points, 69 comments)

Top Submissions

  1. "R.I.P. Bitcoin. It's Time to Move On"....funny billboard driving around in Miami by futureofeverything (3136 points, 227 comments)
  2. Clearly not mainstream yet by tuqqs (2808 points, 104 comments)
  3. Countdown: Bitcoin Will Be a Legal Method of Payment in Japan in Two Months by helmsk (2316 points, 151 comments)
  4. Internet Archive: $3000 donated anonymously to the @internetarchive in bitcoin just now. Made our day! Thank you! by bahatassafus (1941 points, 31 comments)
  5. Welcome to Bitcoin, everyone. Don't worry, he'll recover. by Pizpie (1353 points, 155 comments)
  6. Deutsche Bank - More than $10 billion in transactions never appeared on the books. That's why banksters don't want to use public blockchains. by kynek99 (1338 points, 96 comments)
  7. Julian Assange just used the current block hash as proof-of-not-prerecorded-interview in his AMA by umbawumpa (1294 points, 182 comments)
  8. When you ride the bitcoin rally by Butt_Cheek_Spreader (1189 points, 204 comments)
  9. what it'll look like, when it happens by tuqqs (1124 points, 195 comments)
  10. You can now buy Bitcoin from any 7-11 in the Philippines! by Carlscrazyidea (1021 points, 136 comments)

Top Comments

  1. 380 points: Tyatku's comment in When you ride the bitcoin rally
  2. 340 points: Vaultoro's comment in Just paid 23 cents on a $3.74 transaction. When does it end? $1.00 per transaction? $2? $5? I don't wanna stop using this peer to peer currency, but I'm fast being priced out of it.
  3. 323 points: jamesdpitley's comment in "R.I.P. Bitcoin. It's Time to Move On"....funny billboard driving around in Miami
  4. 290 points: Clutch70's comment in Clearly not mainstream yet
  5. 212 points: BitcoinDreamland's comment in South Florida Distillers uses heat from bitcoin mining to accelerate rum barrel aging!
  6. 206 points: bitpotluck's comment in FOMO-ing right now
  7. 195 points: howardkinsd's comment in Clearly not mainstream yet
  8. 182 points: beloboi's comment in "R.I.P. Bitcoin. It's Time to Move On"....funny billboard driving around in Miami
  9. 181 points: BattleChimp's comment in "R.I.P. Bitcoin. It's Time to Move On"....funny billboard driving around in Miami
  10. 179 points: kidblondie's comment in [AMA] I'm the woman who got pepper sprayed wearing the "Make Bitcoin Great Again" hat.
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Antony Zegers - Transaction Order in Blocks What are Blockchain Confirmations? Understand Blockchain Technology Why Are There So Many Zeros in a Bitcoin Block Hash? - George Levy First Bitcoin transaction Blockchain 101 Ep 16 - What's the fee for Bitcoin transactions?

With bitcoin, every transaction is written to a globally public log, and the lineage of each coin is fully traceable from transaction to transaction. Thus, /transaction flow/ is easily visible to well-known network analysis techniques, already employed in the field by FBI/NSA/CIA/etc. to detect suspicious money flows and "chatter." With Gavin, bitcoin lead developer, speaking at a CIA ... Introducing Bitcoin with zero greenhouse gas emissions and improved security consensus rules: Consider these hypothetical changes to Bitcoin’s consensus rules for a hypothetical upgrade to full nodes (note again this is very quick thoughts so over time this could be improved significantly). All nodes must be fully validating. Miners are no longer producing blocks. ... Method 4: With a Nuclear Reactor. Okay, so no one’s built a nuclear reactor for the sole purpose of mining bitcoin, although if they did, they might just be able to 51% attack the network. In blockchain, every bitcoin transaction is tracked in a public ledger spread across thousands of computers. These transactions are grouped into blocks. However, it’s tedious to reconcile and ... These search puzzles have to be solved by network participants in order to add valid blocks to the chain. The difficulty of these puzzles adjusts regularly in order to account for changes in connected computing power and to maintain approximately 10 min between the addition of each block. 4. During 2018, the computing power required to solve a Bitcoin puzzle increased more than 4-fold until ...

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Antony Zegers - Transaction Order in Blocks

Can you cancel your bitcoin transaction? I️ just started getting into bitcoin and cryptocurrency. Hope this is helpful answering a simple yet important question. Any tips are appreciated ... Start trading Bitcoin and cryptocurrency here: http://bit.ly/2Vptr2X Bitcoin is the first decentralized digital currency. All Bitcoin transactions are docume... When a transaction is broadcast to the blockchain, it has zero confirmations. Once a transaction has been added to a block, it is said to be “confirmed” This means that the transaction has ... 2009-01-03 - first bitcoin BTC transaction (4a5e1e4baab89f3a32518a88c31bc87f618f76673e2cc77ab2127b7afdeda33b). Block Reward = 50 BTC (newly generated coins). The ... We start by taking another look at the blockchain.info website to see some sample blocks and then to a quick screencast explaining how new, unconfirmed transactions are collected by mining nodes ...

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